Teaching the Violent Past: Material for Further Research


Adler, Nanci. Victims of Soviet Terror: The Story of the Memorial Movement. Westport: Praeger, 1993.

Angvik, Magne and Borries, Bodo von. Youth and History: a Comparative European Survey on Historical Consciousness and Political Attitudes among Adolescents. Hamburg: Korber-Stiftung, 1997.

Appleby, Joyce, Hunt, Lynn, and Jacobs, Margaret. Telling the Truth about History. New York: Norton, 1994.

Barkan, Eleazar. The Guilt of Nations: Restitution and Negotiating Historical Injustices. New York: Norton, 2000.

Boyd, Carolyn P. Historia Patria: Politics, History, and National Identity in Spain, 1875-1975. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997.

Burdette, Franklin L., ed. Education for Citizen Responsibilities. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1942, esp. R. Nichols and A. Bining, "The Role of History."

Buruma, Ian. The Wages of Guilt. New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 1994.

Cimbala, P. and Himmelberg, Robert F. Historians and Race: Autobiography and the Writing of History. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1996.

Connerton, Paul. How Societies Remember. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

Digeser, Peter. Political Forgiveness. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2001.

Education for Democracy: A Statement of Principles—Guidelines for Strengthening the Teaching of Democratic Values. Washington, D.C.: American Federation of Teachers, 1987.

Foner, Eric. Who Owns History? Rethinking the Past in a Changing World. New York: Hill and Wang, 2002.

Fullinwider, Robert. "Patriotic History," in R. Fullinwider, ed. Public Education in a Multicultural Society: Policy, Theory, Critique. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996, pp. 203-227.

Gagnon, Paul. Historical Literacy: The Case for History in American Education. New York: Macmillan, 1989.

Gillis, R., ed. Commemorations: The Politics of National Identity. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994.

Goldstone, Richard J. For Humanity: Reflections of a War Crimes Investigator. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000.

Graff, Gerald. Beyond the Culture Wars: How Teaching the Conflicts Can Revitalize American Education. New York: W.W. Norton, 1992.

Gula, Ranajit. History at the Limit of World-History. New York: Columbia University Press, 2002.

Halbwachs, Maurice. Collective Memory. New York: Harper & Row, 1980.

Hein, Laura and Selden, Mark, eds. Censoring History: Citizenship and Memory in Japan, Germany, and the United States. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 2000.

Hirsch, Herbert. Genocide and the Politics of Memory: Studying Death to Preserve Life. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995.

Hobsbawm, Eric J. On History. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1997.

Howard, James and Mendenhall, Thomas. Making History Come Alive. Washington, D.C.: Council for Basic Education, 1982.

Kramer, Lloyd, Donald Reid and William L. Barney, eds. Learning History in America: Schools, Cultures, and Politics. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1994.

Kritz, Neil J., ed. Transitional Justice: How Emerging Democracies Reckon with Former Regimes (3 vols.). Washington D.C.: U.S. Institute of Peace Press, 1995.

Lerner, R., Wagai, A., Rothman, S., eds. Molding the Good Citizen: The Politics of High School Texts. Westport: Praeger, 1995.

Maynard, Kimberly. Chapter Five, "Communities in Conflict," in Healing Communities in Conflict. New York: Columbia University Press, 1999.

Minow, Martha. Between Vengeance and Forgiveness: Facing History After Genocide and Mass Violence. Boston: Beacon Press, 1998.

Nash, Gary B. "Multiculturalism and History: Historical Perspectives and Present Prospects," in R. Fullinwider, ed. Public Education in a Multicultural Society: Policy, Theory, Critique. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996, pp. 183-202.

Nash, Gary B., Crabtree, Charlotte and Dunn, Ross. History on Trial: Culture Wars and the Teaching of the Past. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1998.

Noelle-Neumann. The Spiral of Silence: Public Opinion and Our Public Skin. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984.

Nora, Pierre. Places of Memory. Paris: Gallimard, 1984.

Rotberg, R. and Thompson, D., eds. Truth v. Justice: The Morality of Truth Commissions. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000.

Seixas, Peter, ed. Knowing, Teaching and Learning History: National and International Perspectives. New York: New York University Press, 2000.

Seixas, Peter, ed. Theorizing Historical Consciousness. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2004.

Smith, Kathleen E. Remembering Stalin's Victim: Popular Memory and the End of the USSR. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1996.

Soyinka, Wole. The Burden of Memory, The Muse of Forgiveness. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Thursfield, Richard E. The Study and Teaching of American History. Washington, D.C.: National Council for the Social Studies, 1946.

Trouillet, Michel-Rolph. Silencing the Past: Power and the Production of History. Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 1995.

Vogt, Paul W. Tolerance and Education: Learning to Live with Diversity and Difference. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 1997

Walzer, Michael. On Toleration. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997.

Winter, Jay. Sites of Memory, Sites of Mourning: The Great War in European Cultural History. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995

Teaching History: A Journal of Methods. Published by Emporia State University.

The History Teacher. Published by the Society for History Education.

History and Theory: Studies in the Philosophy of History. Blackwell Publishing

Comparative Education. Carfax Publishing Company.

Aguilar, Paloma. "Collective Memory of the Spanish Civil War: The Case of the Political Amnesty in the Spanish Transition to Democracy," in Democratization, Vol. 4., Winter 1997, pp. 88-109.

Ahonen, Sirkka. "Politics of Identity Through History Curriculum: Narratives of the Past for Social Exclusion—or Inclusion?" in Journal of Curriculum Studies, 2001, Vol. 33, No. 2, pp. 179-194.

Craftcraft, James. "A Berlin for Historians," in History and Theory: Studies in the Philosophy of History, Vol. 41, No. 3, October 2002, pp. 277-300.

Cruz, Consuelo. "Identity and Persuasion: How Nations Remember Their Pasts and Make Their Futures," in World Politics, Vol. 52 No. 3 (2000), pp. 275-312.

Evans, Richard J. "History, Memory, and the Law: The Historian as Expert Witness," in History and Theory: Studies in the Philosophy of History, Vol. 41, No. 3, October 2002, pp. 326-345.

Gardner Feldman, Lily. "The Principle and Practice of 'Reconciliation' in German Foreign Policy: Relations with France, Israel, Poland and the Czech Republic," International Affairs 75.2 (1999): 333-56.

Garton Ash, Timothy. "True Confessions," New York Review of Books, July 17, 1997, pp. 33-38.

Gorn, Elliott, J (Purdue U.). "Professing History: Distinguishing Between Memory and the Past," in Chronicle of Higher Education, 28 April 2000: B4

Hayner, Priscilla, "Fifteen Truth Commissions 1974-1994: A Comparative Study" Human Rights Quarterly 16(1994): 597-653.

Hoepken, Wolfgang. "War, Memory and Education in a Fragmented Society: The Case of Yugoslavia," East European Politics and Societies 13 (1999):190-227.

Jansen, Jonathan D. "The School Curriculum Since Apartheid: Intersections of Politics and Policy in the South African Transition," in Journal of Curriculum Studies, 1999, Vol. 31, No. 1, pp. 57-67.

Kan, Flora and Vickers, Edward, "One Hong Kong, Two Histories: ‘History’ and ‘Chinese History’ in the Hong Kong School Curriculum," Comparative Education, Vol. 38, No. 1, 2002, pp. 73-89.

Kennedy, Paul. "The Decline of Nationalist History in the West, 1900-1970," The Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 8, No. 1, 1973, pp. 77-100.

Levy, Daniel and Sznaider, Natan, "Memory Unbound: The Holocaust and the Formation of Cosmopolitan Memory," in European Journal of Social Theory, Vol. 5 No. 1, pp. 87-106.

Levy, Daniel. "The Future of the Past: Historiographical Disputes and Competing Memories in Germany and Israel," in History and Theory: Studies in the Philosophy of History, Vol. 38., No. 1, February 1999, pp. 51-66.

McClay, Wilfred, "History for a Democracy," in The Wilson Quarterly, Autumn 2001.

Opotow, Susan. "Reconciliation in Times of Impunity: Challenges for Social Justice," in Social Justice Research, Vol. 14 (2), June 2001, pp. 149-170.

Popson, Nancy. "The Ukrainian History Textbook: Introducing Children to the ‘Ukrainian Nation," in Nationalities Papers, Vol. 29, No. 2, 2001, pp. 325-350.

Smith, Patrick. "Memory Without History: Who Owns Guatemala’s Past?" in Washington Quarterly 24, No. 2, Spring 2001, pp. 59-72.

Yarema, Allan. E. "A Decade of Debate: Improving Content and Interest in History Education," in The History Teacher, Vol. 35, No. 3, May 2002, pp. 389-398.


History and the Politics of Reconciliation Program (2000-2005). Here you will learn more about the Council's five-year research program and find a link to additional project resources.

Bhuta, Nehal and Popkin, Margaret. "Latin American Amnesties in Comparative Perspective: Can the Past be Buried?" Ethics and International Affairs 13 (1999): 99-122.

Chandler, David. "Elusive Justice in Cambodia: Will There Be a Trial for the Khmer Rouge?"[Abstract] Ethics and International Affairs 14 (2000) 4: 67-82.

Crocker, David A. "Reckoning with Past Wrongs: A Normative Framework" [Abstract] Ethics & International Affairs, Volume 13 (1999)

Dwyer, Susan. "Reconciliation for Realists" [Abstract] Ethics & International Affairs, Volume 13 (1999)

Hollywood, Thomas J. "A Handcrafting Justice Story." PolicyInnovations 1/23/2007

Little, David. "A Different Kind of Justice: Dealing with Human Rights Violations in Transitional Societies" [Abstract] Ethics & International Affairs, Volume 13 (1999)

Oglesby, Elizabeth. "Historical Memory and the Limits of Peace Education: Examining Guatemala's 'Memory of Silence' and the Politics of Curriculum Design"[PDF]. Working Paper, Carnegie Council Fellow's Program, History and the Politics of Reconciliation, June 2004.

Key Terms: Reconciliation. This is a detailed definition of the term.

"Teaching for Reconciliation: Can Tolerance Towards Former Enemies Be Taught?" (2001) Report on an International Faculty Development Seminar held From June 3-5, 2001, in Lublin, Poland, sponsored by the Carnegie Council on Ethics and International Affairs, Jagiellonian University, and Brama Grodzka.

"Transitional Justice in East Asia and its Impact on Human Rights." Human Rights Dialogue. Series 1, Number 8 (Spring 1997). LINKS to OTHER RESOURCES

Best of History Web Sites. This is a web portal that provides access to history-related resources for teachers, students, and others involved in history education.

bitterlemons.org: This is a website that looks at issues related to the Palestinian-Israeli conflict and peace process.

Canada’s Ministry of Aboriginal Relations and Reconciliation

Centre for Dialogue and Prayer in Auschwitz: In addition to being a place for reflection, education, sharing, and prayer, the center also aims to contribute to building an atmosphere of mutual respect, peace, and reconciliation.

Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation

Corrymeela Organization: Northern Ireland organization comitted to reconcilation in Ireland and the world.

Crimes of War Project

Education for Reconciliation: Creating a History Curriculum after Genoncide. This special project of the Human Rights Center at the University of California Berkeley focuses on Rwanda and provides a curriculum in a downloadable format. The final project report can also be found on the site: "Education for Reconciliation" [PDF].

Facing History Facing Ourselves: This organization is dedicated to helping teachers around the world lead their students in a critical examination of history, with a particular focus on genocide and mass violence.

Georg Eckert Institute (GEI): GEI works with an international forum of experts and academics to analyze teaching and media learning within a comparative framework.

Gernika Gogoratuz: A Basque research center that looks at the symbol of Guernica and its relationship with the future and the past to develop a just and reconciliatory peace.

Goethe Institute: Germany's worldwide cultural institute that provides information on culture, society, and politics.

Institute for Justice and Reconciliation, South Africa: A center established to promote reconciliation, transitional justice, and democratic nation-building in Africa.

Institute for the Healing of Memories: South African organization that hosts workshops as one small step in the process of healing wounds of the past.

International Center for Transitional Justice

Karta: A Polish NGO sponsors historical research of the communist period both in a national and international context.

The Legacy Project: A site devoted to the many violent traumas of the 20th century.

Legacy of Absence Project: Cambodian artists use their art to confront the Khmer Rouge legacy.

Memorial, Russia: An international humanitarian and human rights organization that grew out of perestroika which looks at issues related to historical memory and the former Soviet Union.

National Security Archives Project

Palestine Center for Conflict Resolution and Reconciliation

Peru’s Truth Commission

Report of Guatemala’s Commission for Historical Clarification

South Africa’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission Homepage

Truth Commission Project: A joint project of Search for Common Ground, the European Centre for Common Ground, and the Program on Negotiation at Harvard University Law School.

United States Institute for Peace "Special Report" [PDF]