- Would the World Be Better Without the UN? with Thomas G. Weiss
Thomas Weiss, a leading expert on the history and politics of the United Nations, gives incontrovertible evidence of the UN's achievements, such as the eradication of smallpox, but also details where the organization has fallen short. This is a critical time for all multilateral organizations and treaties, he stresses, as Trump has no regard for international cooperation.
- Roadmap to Hell: Sex, Drugs and Guns on the Mafia Coast, with Barbie Latza Nadeau
Rome-based journalist Barbie Latza Nadeau tells the horrifying story of the thousands of Nigerian women and girls duped into being trafficked to Italy, where they are forced to become sex slaves, drug mules, or weapons smugglers. How can this be stopped? The Nigerian government turns a blind eye, Libya, the transit point, is a failed state, and Italy is overwhelmed by the sheer numbers of migrants--plus prostitution is legal there.
- Carnegie Council Congratulates Michael Ignatieff on Winning Eighth Annual Zócalo Book Prize for "The Ordinary Virtues"
Michael Ignatieff's latest book, "The Ordinary Virtues: Moral Order in a Divided World," which grew out of his Centennial project for Carnegie Council for Ethics in International Affairs, has won the prestigious Zócalo Book Prize for 2018.
- Crime and Global Justice: The Dynamics of International Punishment, with Daniele Archibugi
Are we witnessing a new era of cosmopolitan justice or are the old principles of victors' justice still in play? Economic and political theorist Daniele Archibugi discusses his new book, "Crime and Global Justice," which examines the history of global criminal justice and presents five case studies: Augusto Pinochet, Slobodan Milošević, Radovan Karadžić, Saddam Hussein, and Omar al-Basheer.
- Promoting Human Rights in the Developing World, with American Jewish World Service's Robert Bank
Growing up in Apartheid-era South Africa, Robert Bank cared about social injustice from an early age. Today he travels the world for AJWS, working with local activists on a range of issues such as women's rights in India and LGBT rights in Uganda. "My job—very much like a conductor of an orchestra in some way—is to ensure that every instrument has its beautiful voice heard and that this melody is given the opportunity to really soar."
- The Peacemakers: Leadership Lessons from Twentieth-Century Statesmanship, with Bruce Jentleson
What are the qualities and conditions that enable people to become successful peacemakers? At a time when peace seems elusive and conflict endemic, Bruce Jentleson makes a forceful and inspiring case for the continued relevance of statesmanship and diplomacy and provides practical guidance to 21st-century leaders seeking lessons from some of history's most accomplished negotiators, activists, and trailblazers.
- The Return of Marco Polo's World, with Robert D. Kaplan
If you wish to understand the depth and breadth of the geographical, historical, technological, and political forces that are shaping our world, there is no better guide than Robert Kaplan. Using Marco Polo's journey as "a geographical framing device for Eurasia today," he examines China's ambitious One Belt One Road project, dissecting China's imperial dream and its multiple, under-reported objectives.
- Maintaining Power by Breaking up Society: Eritrea Under Isaias Afwerki
Isaias Afwerki has been president of Eritrea since 1993. How has he stayed in power so long, although he is highly unpopular across Eritrea, even in his home region? "Instead of rallying public support, Isaias employs coercion, imprisonment, torture, intimidation, and killing to secure obedience, while simultaneously pursuing divide-and-rule strategies," writes Bahlbi Malk.
- "Modern Slavery" with Siddharth Kara
In his third book on slavery, which took 16 years of research, Siddharth Kara calculates that there are roughly 31 million slaves worldwide, at least half of them in South Asia. We need to apply much more resources and compassion to end "this horrible indignity."
- Deciphering the Middle East and Trump's National Security Stategy, with Asha Castleberry
Asha Castleberry, Fordham professor and U.S. Army veteran, describes her "mixed reaction" to Trump's National Security Strategy--touching on China and Russia, cybersecurity, and climate change--and what effect it will actually have on the military's operations. Plus, she details an increasingly complicated Middle East, with the Saudi crown prince on a warpath and a dangerous transitional period in Syria and Iraq after major victories against ISIS.
- A Climate of Impunity? The Problem of Sexual Abuse by UN Peacekeeping Forces, with Justice Marie Deschamps
Over two years after the release of a report on sexual exploitation and abuse by international peacekeeping forces in the Central African Republic, chaired by Marie Deschamps, has anything changed? Not much, says Deschamps in this shocking interview. The report's recommendations have not been implemented and there is still a "climate of impunity" for abusers, even though the first allegations against UN forces date back to the 1980s.
- Humanitarian Ethics and the Red Cross, with Hugo Slim
"I would say that the principle of humanity, and humanity in war even, is a global ethic. We can trace it through human history," says ICRC's Hugo Slim. Don't miss this in-depth discussion about the work of the Red Cross and its core humanitarian ethics as laid out in the Geneva Convention: humanity and compassion; the principal of a clear distinction between combatants and noncombatants; and proportionality in the weapons and the force used.
- Rescue: Refugees and the Political Crisis of Our Time, with David Miliband
Today there are 65 million people who have fled their homes because of conflict or persecution, says the International Rescue Committee's David Miliband. These are refugees not economic migrants, and half of them are children. It's a long-term crisis that will last our lifetimes. Why should we care? And what can we do about it, both at a policy level and as individuals?
- Over 60 Organizations in 30+ Countries Celebrate Global Ethics Day, 2017
October 18, 2017 marked the fourth annual Global Ethics Day, with participation from over 60 organizations and individuals from 31 countries on five continents. Founded by Carnegie Council in 2014 to celebrate its centennial, Global Ethics Day is a global teach-in, an opportunity for institutions to explore the role of ethics in a globalized world. From the Gambia to Nicaragua to Romania, everyone celebrated in their own way.
- The Ordinary Virtues: Moral Order in a Divided World
To mark Carnegie Council's Centennial, Michael Ignatieff and team set out to discover what moral values people hold in common across nations. What he found was that while universal human rights may be the language of states and liberal elites, what resonate with most people are "ordinary virtues" practiced on a person-to-person basis, such as tolerance and forgiveness. He concludes that liberals most focus on strengthening these ordinary virtues.
- The Evolution of Corporate Ethics: A Strategic Case for Profit Maximization through Responsible Behavior
"We are now transitioning from a world where philanthropic social contributions, i.e., Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), influenced behavior, to one where authentic Positive Impact drives behavior," write Ben Ersing and Robert Matus of Palladium International. Change is always difficult, both for individuals and corporations, but there are a handful of visionary leaders showing the way.
- New Book, "The Ordinary Virtues: Moral Order in a Divided World" by Carnegie-Uehiro Centennial Chair Michael Ignatieff
Carnegie Council congratulates Michael Ignatieff on the publication of "The Ordinary Virtues." This important book is the culmination of his Carnegie Council Centennial project, Global Ethical Dialogues, a multi-year initiative that engaged societies across the world in the quest for a global ethic--shared values with which to tackle problems that transcend national boundaries.
- Amnesty International's Sarah Jackson on the Crisis in South Sudan
Since South Sudan's civil war broke out in late 2013, soldiers on both sides have been using rape and other forms of sexual violence on a massive scale as a weapon of war, says Amnesty International's Sarah Jackson. The resulting refugee crisis is putting a severe strain on neighboring Uganda, a country with one of the most generous refugee policies in the world. What is at the root of this violence? How can governments and NGOs help?
- General Donald Bolduc on the U.S. War in Afghanistan
In this inspiring interview, Brig. Gen. Bolduc discusses his time in Afghanistan and his assessment of the situation there as well as in Africa, where he was in charge of countering violent extremism. He also reveals his experiences with PTSD, traumatic brain injury (TBI), and multiple other physical injuries, explaining how he finally got help and how he is working hard to help others with the same issues.
- Easternization: Asia's Rise and America's Decline from Obama to Trump and Beyond
"Financial Times" chief foreign affairs commentator Gideon Rachman says, "We've reached the point where the West's grip on world affairs begins to loosen." China's economic rise is, indeed, a big reason for this shift, but how do Brexit, Crimea, and "red lines" fit into the story? What will be the effect on Southeast Asia, Australia, and Africa?
- Protestants: The Faith that Made the Modern World
Understanding Protestantism is fundamental to understanding the modern world, says Professor Alec Ryrie. It has shaped democratic liberalism, capitalism, limited government, the notion of free inquiry, and continues to gain converts all over the world. How did this all blossom from Martin Luther's "Ninety-five Theses" 500 years ago?
- No Place for Eritreans
Eritreans are fleeing their repressive homeland at the rate of 5,000 a month. Yet once they manage to leave, new dangers await these hapless refugees, from extortion to violence and death. How can the world turn its back?
- Freedom of Expression in Ethiopia, Kenya, and Beyond
Freelance journalist Ismail Einashe sees a dangerous backsliding of democracy and free media in sub-Saharan Africa, alongside an increase in Internet access and the influence of foreign media organizations. Two weeks into the new administration, are there parallels in the United States?
- Virtual Citizenship for Refugees: A Proposal
At last, a practical, humane, and cost-effective proposal to help cope with the nearly 20 million refugees and asylum seekers worldwide, from philosophers Christian Barry and Philip Gerrans.
- Eritrea: An Exiled Nation Suspended in Liminal Space through Social Media
Exiled Eritreans use social media to organize opposition against the tyrannical regime back home and to provide crucial information for the thousands of young migrants fleeing the country. They remain in limbo--a liminal space between the familiar and the unknown.
- Women's Rights are Human Rights: Global Challenges to Reproductive Health
How will the Trump presidency affect women's rights, not only in the U.S. but around the world? Will the Sustainable Development Goals really succeed in improving women's health and reducing gender inequalities? Emotions run high on these issues. How can we find common ground? Don't miss this important discussion.
- Peacemakers in Action: An In-depth Discussion of Religious Peacebuilding
Don't miss this remarkable conversation with Joyce Dubensky, CEO of Tanenbaum Center for Interreligious Understanding, and one of Tanenbaum's peacemakers, Rev. Bill Lowrey, who spent a decade in South Sudan. They explain the work of Tanenbaum's international network of peacemakers--the people on the ground who never quit.
- Instagram Take-Over #11: Ghana Series by Subramaniam Kwabena Owusu
Subramaniam Kwabena Owusu, popularly known as Kobe Subramaniam, is a developer, designer, photographer, and robotics enthusiast who co-leads Google Developer Groups in Ghana and serves as the country mentor. Check out his wonderful photos of Ghana.
- Kumi Naidoo on Human Rights and the Impact of Climate Change
Kumi Naidoo's activism began at 15 years old, when he risked his life to protest against apartheid in his native South Africa. The former Greenpeace executive hasn't stopped since. Learn more about this inspiring man and find out why he considers climate change to be the most important human rights issue of our time.
- Measuring Positive and Negative Peace with the Global Peace Index
If you're running a business you need metrics to succeed, and it's the same with peace, says Steve Killelea, founder of the Global Peace Index. The Index provides empirical ways to measure both "negative peace"--the absence of violence and fear of violence--and "positive peace"-- attitudes, institutions, and structures which create and sustain peace.
- Robert Kaplan on the Underlying Forces that Drive our "Post-Modern" World
"To understand the events of the next 50 years, then, one must understand environmental scarcity, cultural and racial clash, geographic destiny, and the transformation of war." Robert Kaplan wrote these prescient words back in 1994. In this fascinating discussion, he analyses how his predictions are playing out and where we are headed.
- A World History of Political Violence
Rachel Kleinfeld discusses with Devin Stewart her research--which took her to five continents over the past three years--and forthcoming book on how violence is perpetuated and curtailed in societies around the world. Kleinfeld discusses the role of political power, corruption, law enforcement, leadership, and grassroots movements.
- The Needs of Refugee Women and Children in the Global Humanitarian Crisis
In this powerful talk, executive director Sarah Costa explains the work of the Women's Refugee Commission, and discusses the current crisis. The numbers are staggering: one in 122 people across the world have been forced to flee, and the majority are women and children. The average length of displacement is 20 years. What can be done to help?
- The Next Pandemic: On the Front Lines Against Humankind's Gravest Dangers
In over 20 years at the CDC, Dr. Ali Khan battled Ebola, SARS, and other deadly diseases. But, as he reveals in this fascinating talk, what really worries him is the effect that political and social factors can have on fighting these outbreaks. With Zika emerging as the newest threat, what can governments--and individuals--do to be better prepared?
- A Conversation with Sarah Chayes on Corruption and Global Security
Around the world from Afghanistan to Nigeria, systemic corruption is fueling instability, declares Sarah Chayes in this electrifying conversation. And the United States and other enablers are part of the problem. "If we don't prioritize corruption more—and that means here as well as there—the world is going to become an increasingly dangerous place."
- Back to the Drawing Board: What the Recent Peace Agreement Means for South Sudan
Will South Sudan's President Kiir really remain committed to the August 2015 peace agreement that ended the civil war? Claire Metalits has studied South Sudan and its vast challenges for over 20 years, and has her doubts. Find out why.
- "Rough Justice: The International Criminal Court in a World of Power Politics" by David Bosco
There is a growing awareness that the greatest threat to democracy may no longer derive from human agency, but from new forms of technology.
- Global Tax Avoidance: Who's Responsible?
We investigate the complex world of tax avoidance, starting with the mining industry in Zambia. Activists, documentarians, and economists give perspectives on how corporations avoid taxes and how this practice is now entrenched in business and government.
- A Conversation with Ethan Zuckerman on the Ethics of the Internet
"We have the capacity to get stories from every part of the globe. The question is, what do we want to pay attention to? The crazy thing that has happened over 20 years of the consumer Internet is that we have told the market that we care about people who look like us, act like us, feel like us, and we don't much care about anybody else."
- An Interview with Shefa Siegel on Liberia, Ebola, and the Cult of Bankable Projects
It's not for lack of money that international organizations failed to prevent the disastrous spread of Ebola, says Shefa Siegel. It's for lack of flexibility and an inability to develop a comprehensive picture of what's going on and what the development needs are in any given country--take Liberia, which has a mere 50 doctors to serve its population of 4 million.
- The Eleventh Hour: The Legacy and the Lessons of World War I
One hundred years after the First World War, boundaries established after the armistice at the "eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month" still shape many of today's conflicts, from ISIS's invasion of Mosul to Boko Haram's kidnapping of schoolgirls. What lessons have we learned from WWI? Just as important, what have we still not learned?
- Ebola, Liberia, and the "Cult of Bankable Projects"
Instead of addressing core issues of state failure, development aid continues pushing narrowly focused agendas that have little meaning in places where institutions and infrastructure are broken.
- Nigeria and the Horror of Boko Haram
"Like other radical insurgencies, Boko Haram is fueled by poor governance, political marginalization, and its region's deepening impoverishment," says former Ambassador to Nigeria John Campbell. "However, it is also shaped by specifically Nigerian circumstances and factors." This talk helps us understand Boko Haram's roots, ideology, and goals.
- Dual Legacy: The Effect of Business Thinking on the Social Sector
This month on "Impact," we're taking a close look at a huge issue--legacy. In this case, we're examining how it relates to contemporary philanthropy and the social sector in general. Specifically, we examine the $37-billion Gates Foundation's dual legacy in promoting global health, and in shaping the social sector at large.
- Tourism, Farmers, & Technology in Africa: Eddie Mandhry from NYU Africa House
"What's been amazing is that across Africa there is a movement where people are adopting technologies and leapfrogging some of the developmental stages that you'd have to go through," says Eddie Mandhry.
- Ethics on Film: Discussion of "Timbuktu"
An extraordinary film, "Timbuktu" chronicles a brief period during the 2012 occupation of the ancient Malian city by the militant Islamic group Ansar Dine. What do these stories tell us about how extremism plays out on the ground, for both the occupied and the occupiers?
- Ebola and Other Viral Outbreaks: Providing Health Care to the Global Poor in Times of Crisis
Why were initial responses to the Ebola outbreak so disastrously inadequate? How can dysfunctional health systems--at all levels--be improved, so that this doesn't happen again? Dr. Klitzman of Columbia University and Dr. Karunakara, former international president of MSF, discuss these issues and more, including why doctors treating Ebola should not be called heroes.
- Top Risks and Ethical Decisions 2015
"The world in 2015 looks a lot more dangerous, a lot more vulnerable," says global political risk specialist Ian Bremmer in his annual forecast. He notes that while the United States and China, the world's largest and second-largest economies, are doing better economically, the global environment is geopolitically much worse.
- A Conversation with General Martin Dempsey, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
In this candid and thoughtful conversation, General Dempsey tackles the difficult questions, from ISIS to Ebola to cyber threats. And throughout, he stresses the importance of ethics, education, and service.
- Peaceland: Conflict Resolution and the Everyday Politics of International Intervention
Why do international peace interventions often fail to reach their full potential? Based on 15 years of research in conflict zones around the world, Autesserre shows that everyday behavior, such as the expatriates' social habits and actions caused by lack of local knowledge, strongly influence the effectiveness of many peacekeeping operations.
- A Conversation with Lieutenant-General Roméo A. Dallaire
In this inspiring conversation, Dallaire talks about his faith in the principle of R2P--"one of the great innovations of our time"--and how to go about actually implementing it; the tragedy of Rwanda; and most of all, his work to prevent the use of child soldiers.
- Lest We Forget: The 20th Anniversary of the Rwandan Genocide
As we remember this tragedy when so many innocent Rwandans died, we must examine why genocide occurs, and learn how to prevent such atrocities from happening again. Are we ignoring ongoing genocides today? Are the victims and their families receiving justice? These resources provide a guide not only to the past, but to the present and future.
- "Watchers of the Sky": Film Screening & Conversation with Luis Moreno-Ocampo
What are the challenges facing the International Criminal Court? How can it be more effective? Former ICC prosecutor Moreno-Ocampo explains.
- Ethics Matter: A Conversation with Sebastian Junger
Journalist Sebastian Junger knows about war from the inside: the horror and pain, the excitement and heightened awareness, and the fierce brotherhood between soldiers. In this moving conversation he talks about his life and work, and ponders on what everyone owes their country, whether they choose to fight or stay home.
- By All Means Necessary: How China's Resource Quest is Changing the World
As China's urban middle class expands, China's government--and private companies--are traveling the globe in pursuit of fuel, ores, water, and farmland. And the government has all kinds of tools to bring to bear, from public diplomacy and backroom deals, to low-cost financing and low-cost labor. How is this quest changing the world, including China itself?
- Rules of Engagement: The Legal, Ethical and Moral Challenges of the Long War
Can the drone campaign be legally and morally justified? What are the limits to the president's authority when it comes to targeted killing? Don't miss this discussion with Robert Grenier, former CIA counterterrorism director; Charles Blanchard, former general counsel of the U.S. Air Force; and Kenneth Anderson, professor of law at American University.
- Jeffrey Sachs: Idealist or Extreme Pragmatist?
Nina Munk's book about economist Jeffrey Sachs portrays his defense of the global poor as an act of faithful idealism. She could not have it more wrong.
- Symposium at the Scottish Parliament: From War to a Global Ethic
Is it possible to create a global code of ethics? In this Carnegie Council Centennial Symposium at the Scottish Parliament, the panelists discuss Andrew Carnegie's legacy; what has changed since his time; and Carnegie Council's contribution to the vital task of moving toward a shared international understanding with which to face today's problems.
- Citizenship Within and Across Nations
Philosopher Kwame Anthony Appiah explores the role of civic honor, and its negative counterpart, shame, in shaping the political behavior of individuals and of nations, and in particular, in shaping the moral dimensions of political behavior.
- The Fate of Cultural Property in Wartime: Why it Matters and What Should Be Done
Cultural property protection in conflict is often neglected as people argue that the lives of individuals in warzones are far more important than old buildings, pots, and books. However, it is not a question of prioritizing. We must not dismiss cultural property protection in conflicts as secondary to humanitarian tragedy, but as part of the effort to save humanity.
- Ethics on Film: Discussion of "Fire in the Blood"
With the tagline "Medicine, Monopoly, Malice," this powerful documentary tells how Western drug companies fought to keep discounted AIDS medications from reaching HIV-positive citizens of the developing world.
- Ethics Matter: Jeremy Scahill on the World as a Battlefield
In the name of the "war on terror," the U.S. is conducting covert warfare and targeted killings, and it dismisses the resulting deaths of innocent civilians as "collateral damage." What are the ethical and practical repercussions of these policies? Jeremy Scahill's blistering talk ranges from Iraq to Afghanistan, Yemen, and Somalia.
- Evangelical Catholicism: Deep Reform in the 21st Century
In this in-depth, erudite talk, George Weigel discusses the historic shift taking place in the Catholic church; the character of the new mode of Catholicism that is coming into being; his personal impressions of the new pope; and the flourishing church in Africa.
- Breakout Nations: In Pursuit of the Next Economic Miracles
Which countries will be the next big thing? Most follow a four-point cycle, says Sharma: "You have economic crisis. They carry out economic reforms. After they carry out economic reforms, some sort of boom takes place. Then complacency sets in, and then you get back to having a crisis." So beware! Economic development is extremely hard to sustain.
- Thought Leader: Mary Robinson
"What strikes me about the world today is that it's a world of 7 billion people who are more connected than ever before, and yet the divides are huge. We see growing inequality both within countries and between countries. I'm not sure that we can continue like this and be socially cohesive."
- Thought Leader: Bineta Diop
"For me, leadership is also feminine. I always say that the men who have feminine values are part of the criteria for me to look for in leadership. It is that touch, that caring, giving, solidarity. Those are things that for me are very fundamental in leadership."
- Public Affairs: Everybody Matters: My Life Giving Voice
In this inspiring talk about her extraordinary life so far, Mary Robinson tells us of her early years and how she became president of Ireland, even though the odds were 100-1; her work as a champion of human rights, especially those of women; and about her current work as president of the Mary Robinson Foundation - Climate Justice.
- Shefa Siegel on the Ethics of Mining
Mining harms the environment irreversibly, yet this is often ignored, and mining is on the increase, often without clear ecological or economic development benefits. "We're still using the model created at the end of the 19th century, but in a very different period, where the resources are increasingly scarce and the economy has changed dramatically."
- Book Review: "China and Africa: A Century of Engagement"
Now more than ever, the world is influenced and affected by all things Chinese, especially its relationships with developing countries. And there is much to learn through studying the country's dealings with Africa, which are of great enormity and complexity. This book is, therefore, an important resource for anyone concerned with international relations.
- The Missing Ethics of Mining
There is a maddening futility about speaking of "mining," as if it were singular or coherent. It is like talking about "Africa" or addressing the "international community" in the fashion of humanitarians, as if it is all one big thing. Rather, there are many mining industries, and each has its own culture, directives, structure, purpose, and pathologies.
- The Revenge of Geography: What the Map Tells Us About Coming Conflicts and the Battle Against Fate
With a breadth and depth of knowledge spanning not only current geopolitics but centuries of history, Robert Kaplan shows us the crucial importance of geography in shaping our destinies. Geography still matters, and always will.
- Ethics Matter: Top Risks and Ethical Decisions 2013 with Ian Bremmer
"There are three big things happening right now in the world: China rising, Middle East exploding, Europe muddling through. Those are the things that truly matter, in the sense that they have potentially very different kinds of trajectories and outcomes depending on where they go."
- Thought Leader: Richard Lugar
"I do approach it in a positive way, that we ought to be thinking about nutrition for every human being, keeping people alive so they have a chance to learn and to be productive."
- Of Africa
In this masterful talk, Nobel-Prize winner Wole Soyinka focuses on Nigeria and Mali. Mali must be taken back, he declares. "To permit an enclave of extreme, violent fundamentalism [in Mali] is letting the door wide open to fundamentalist violence, not merely in Nigeria, but throughout West Africa."
- Human Rights Watch: Promoting Ethical Behavior When It's Contested
It's the job of Human Rights Watch to shine a spotlight on human rights abuses worldwide, including in the U.S., says its executive director Ken Roth. We speak not for the public conscience, but to it, "and if we have hit that conscience accurately, it’s reflected in shame, and governments then have to respond to that."
- Losing the Violence Monopoly
The poisonous cocktail of widespread police and military brutality, increasingly lethal inter-communal ethnic violence in several regions, the anxious countdown to the March 2013 presidential elections, and uncertainty over the implementation of major constitutional reforms has transformed Kenya's security situation from precarious to explosive.
- Senator Richard Lugar on Nuclear Weapons Reduction
Senator Lugar tells the dramatic story of his bipartisan work on the Cooperative Threat Reduction Program (also known as Nunn–Lugar), which provides funding and expertise for states in the former USSR nations to reduce nuclear weapons.
- Ethics Matter: Dambisa Moyo on How Aid to Africa is Harmful
Aid has failed to create economic growth, says Moyo, and allows governments to evade their responsibilities. So when people say that aid provides essential services, they're missing the point. Except when disaster strikes, governments should be responsible for their citizens, not the international community.
- Global Ethics Corner: South Africa: The Impossible Dream?
It's been about 20 years since South Africa emerged from apartheid, but a recent series of violent confrontations between police and striking mine workers have exposed the bitter divisions of the "rainbow nation." Can South Africa remain a peaceful and prosperous example for Africa?
- Thought Leader: Kwame Anthony Appiah
"The more our societies are in conversation, the more likely it is, when it comes to having to make the hard decisions that are involved in discussions where you have to settle something, the more likely we are to be able to do it."
- Global Ethics Corner: Prosecuting Pirates: Enforcing the Rule of Law at Sea
With Somali piracy surging over the last four years, the UN is calling for travel and financial sanctions on senior pirate leaders. Is this an effective way to punish the ringleaders or could it make piracy more violent? Should the focus, instead, be on the underlying problems in Somalia?
- Dealing with "Enablers" in Mass Atrocities: A New Human Rights Concept Takes Shape
Because mass atrocities are organized crimes, crippling the means to organize and sustain them--money, communications networks, and other resources--can disrupt their execution, writes George Lopez.
- What Does It Mean to Prevent Genocide?
It's essential to understand that genocide is a process, not an event, says Tibi Galis from the Auschwitz Institute for Peace and Reconciliation. It doesn't just happen out of the blue. So there are chances to step in and change the course of this process.
- Supply Chains, and China's Interests in Africa
Ambassador David Shinn and NYU Professor Joshua Eisenman discuss China's economic interests in Africa, and the ethical questions these raise. Next comes U.S. hedge fund manager Philippe Burke, who calls for getting rid of overseas supply chains and returning to "Made in the USA."
- Antonio Franceschet on the International Criminal Court
What is the role of the International Criminal Court today? What are its strengths and limitations? In this informative interview, Professor Antonio Franceschet discusses the evolution of the ICC; its basic structure and function; and its current and future challenges.
- "Blood Ore" in Sierra Leone?
Considered one of the new frontiers in iron ore mining, Sierra Leone has gone from total state collapse in the mid-1990s to one of the most attractive investment prospects in the world. Nevertheless, the underlying conditions that led to ruin back in the 1990s still exist today.
- The Intersection of Global Health and Business
How can global health be improved? PepsiCo executive Derek Yach speaks about the positive changes corporations are making, and Professor Yanzhong Huang discusses China's health care challenges.
- Public Affairs: Private Empire: ExxonMobil and American Power
ExxonMobil is rather like France, says Steve Coll. It's mostly aligned with the U.S; it's sometimes opposed, but a lot of the time it's just busy keeping track of its own separate system and really doesn't want to be entangled in U.S. power unless it serves ExxonMobil interests.
- The Race for What's Left: The Global Scramble for the World's Last Resources
As we run out of resources, the human race is at a pivotal point. We have two options: We can continue along the same path, leading to much of the planet becoming uninhabitable. Or we can create an alternative future where we use resources in a much more sustainable and frugal way.
- Ethics Matter: Mary Ellen Iskenderian, CEO of Women's World Banking
CEO of Women's World Banking Iskenderian explains why investing in women makes so much sense. She also tackles the recent critiques of microfinance and discusses how it is evolving.
- Global Ethics Corner: "Kony 2012": The Power of Simplicity or the Perils of Oversimplification?
Invisible Children's Kony 2012 campaign has reached critical mass and turned Joseph Kony into a household name. But does the organization's simplified message misinform the public and whitewash the evils of the Ugandan government? Will it all be worth it if Kony is arrested?
- The Responsibility to Protect: A New International Norm?
What is Responsibility to Protect exactly? Dutch Ambassador Herman Schaper gives an expert talk on how it developed, how it is defined, how it was implemented in Libya, and what are the implications for the future.
- The Oil Curse: How Petroleum Wealth Shapes the Development of Nations
According to Michael Ross, it's no coincidence that major oil-producing countries have less democracy, fewer opportunities for women, more frequent civil wars, and more volatile economic growth than the rest of the world.
- Blind to Reality: Invisible Children and the LRA
The Kony 2012 documentary is over a decade too late, says Steven Costello. Promoting a "save the children" storyline (complete with a Joseph Kony awareness bracelet for just $30) to whip up less-than-nuanced public awareness is not only unhelpful; it is dangerous.
- Global Ethics Corner: A Force for Good or Evil? Google Maps and Border Wars
Border disputes have been around for thousands of years, but in the age of Google Maps, they are taking on another dimension. Does Google bear any responsibility if a conflict arises because of borders it has drawn? Or should we all realize that these maps are just for "entertainment"?
- All the Missing Souls: A Personal History of the War Crimes Tribunals
David Scheffer was at the forefront of the efforts leading to criminal tribunals for the Balkans, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, and Cambodia. His quest has been to "to discover the right formula, in ever-changing international circumstances, to confront monstrous evil and to do so in the courtroom."
- The Dictator's Handbook: Why Bad Behavior Is Almost Always Good Politics
Cynics or realists? Just follow five rules and you can be a successful dictator, say Bruce Bueno de Mesquita and Alastair Smith--at least until old age or sickness catch up with you. They go on to argue that these precepts apply to all systems of governance, including U.S. democracy.
- Ethics Matter: Economist and Development Expert Jeffrey Sachs
Jeffrey Sachs discusses America's economic and moral crisis; development aid; the Occupy Wall Street movement; and the mobilization of youth around the world, fighting for the basic principles of freedom, justice, and equality.
- The Shadow World: Inside the Global Arms Trade
In 2010, global military expenditure was roughly $1.6 trillion--that's $235 for every person on earth. This has profound impacts, from the perpetuation of conflict, to the corrosion of democracy, to massive socioeconomic costs.
- Global Ethics Corner: HIV Prevention and Behavior Change in Africa: Are Western-Imported Methods Working?
Are Western-imported methods for fighting HIV/AIDS working in Sub-Saharan Africa? Some critics argue that campaigns more aligned with traditional African values could be more effective in fighting the disease than Western campaigns focused on abstinence and safe sex.
- UN Population Fund Report
Now that the population has reached seven billion, most of the focus is on the numbers. In this report, however, Crossette explores individual stories around the world to shed light on such issues as aging populations, migration, and the desire of women for family planning.
- Ethics Matter: Economist and Foreign Aid Specialist William Easterly
The best system for discovering new approaches is not to have one planner at the top trying to decide what are going to be the successful innovations, says Bill Easterly. It's to have lots and lots of people at the bottom experimenting and finding their own innovations.
- Global Ethics Corner: Genocide Denial in Rwanda: Dealing with the Past or Subverting Democracy?
Do laws that make it a crime to deny the existence of genocide help to lessen the chances of renewed conflict? Or, do they stifle freedom of speech--and risk eliminating political dissent? These are the questions currently debated in Rwanda.
- A Second 'Split' for South Sudan?
There is euphoria across southern Sudan in anticipation of independence on July 9, 2011. Yet in addition to friction with the north, increasingly violent internal conflicts mean that the new nation's future is far from secure, writes Steven Costello in this first-hand report.
- Global Ethics Corner: Southern Sudan: Would You Declare War?
Within weeks of independence for Southern Sudan, the Northern Sudanese Army annexed the disputed town of Abyei. Should Southern Sudan respond militarily, risking a larger war? Or should they move ahead with independence on July 9 as planned?
- They Fight Like Soldiers, They Die Like Children: The Global Quest to Eradicate the Use of Child Soldiers
Child soldiers are a weapons system that is effective, cheap, and complete. How do we counter that? How do we make the use of children a liability? How do we stop people from reverting to using children as the primary weapons system of a conflict?
- Leif Wenar on Natural Resources and Clean Trade Policies
Consumers in countries that import natural resources are often unwittingly in business with dictators, corrupt officials, and armed groups, says Leif Wenar. Yet we could change our laws to make powerful groups in exporting countries more accountable to their own people.
- Beyond Good Intentions: The Promise and Peril of Citizen Engagement with Foreign Policy
What were the accomplishments and failures of the U.S. grassroots movements that responded to the humanitarian crisis in Darfur and how do these lessons apply to grassroots movements in general?
- Ethics Matter: Political Scientist and Economist Francis Fukuyama
How does Francis Fukuyama view state formation, normative issues, and human behavior? Does he believe (as Andrew Carnegie did) that history moves in an upward direction and we can eventually put an end to war? This fascinating interview explores these questions and more.
- The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution
How did human beings succeed in creating the ideal of strong, accountable governments that adhere to the rule of law? Francis Fukuyama provides a sweeping account of how today's basic political institutions developed.
- The Fear: Robert Mugabe and the Martyrdom of Zimbabwe
Author and journalist Peter Godwin was born and raised in Zimbabwe (formerly Rhodesia). In this gripping talk he untangles his country's complex and tragic history, and shows us the arc of President Mugabe's brutal career.
- Captain James Staples on International Piracy
Everyone knows that the only real solution to piracy in the Indian Ocean is to stabilize Somalia and revive its economy, says Merchant Marine Captain James Staples, a piracy expert. As long as Somalians have nothing to lose, piracy will continue.
- April 2011 or April 1994? Seventeen Years Later, Libya is to Ivory Coast as Bosnia was to Rwanda
While all eyes are focused on Libya, we may be headed towards a bloodbath in Ivory Coast similar to that in Rwanda in April 1994. The Middle East is of vital strategic importance and Sub-Saharan Africa is not. Yet how can we allow history to repeat itself?
- Swan Paik on Nike Foundation and the Girl Effect
Women and girls are a powerful accelerator for change, says Nike Foundation's Swan Paik. By allowing girls to fall through irreversible trap doors in adolescence, the world is missing out on the tremendous potential that they have to offer.
- Global Ethics Corner: Defeating Piracy
In March 2011, there were over 50 vessels and 800 people held hostage by Somali pirates. What should be the response to these captures? Should a third party attack, negotiate, seek legal remedies, or continue to make the best of a terrible situation?
- WikiLeaks: An Overview, Part II
Did WikiLeaks really spark the unrest in Tunisia, as Assange and many pundits claim? No, writes Erik Schechter; but it has certainly influenced politics in another African country--Zimbabwe--where WikiLeaks has been a setback for democratic forces.
- Ethics in Business: Interview with Karl Hofmann on Private Sector Tools in Promoting Global Health
"We strongly believe that markets can be made to work for the poor in ways that far surpass the ability of the public sector and other interventions to really have the impact that we need at scale," says PSI President Karl Hoffman.
- The Promise and Peril of an Independent Republic of South Sudan
Many ask, "Will the newly independent South Sudan become a failed state?" But the real question is, "Can North Sudan remain a viable state without the South?" says Sudan expert Eric Reeves. Peace is far from guaranteed and both states face staggering challenges.
- Kitengesa, Uganda: Happy Development
A series of inter-related projects in a Ugandan village show that small can be beautiful, particularly for women--and it all began with a community library.
- Interview with Susan Aryeetey on Women in Ghana
Susan Aryeetey discusses her work empowering women in Ghana. She has a background in journalism and communications, and has spent the last eight years at Ghana's International Federation of Women Lawyers, or FIDA.
- Self-Determination and Conflict Resolution: From Kosovo to Sudan
Drawing on the International Court's judgment on the legality of Kosovo's unilateral declaration of independence, Arbour examines the pursuit of self-determination in a range of situations, focusing particular attention on the upcoming referendum in Southern Sudan.
- The Tenth Parallel: Dispatches from the Fault Line between Christianity and Islam
More than half of the world's Muslims and Christians live along the tenth parallel in Africa or in Asia. How do these two great intersecting faiths interact?
- Global Ethics Corner: Smartphones: From Popular Product to Ethical Dilemma
Smartphones rely on coltan, much of which is mined in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Given that the Congo represents one of the worst illustrations of modern mineral exploitation, what will you do?
- Rebuilding War-Torn States: The Challenge of Post-Conflict Economic Reconstruction
After wars end, what steps should countries take to consolidate peace? Graciana del Castillo identifies five premises that are necessary for war economies to transition into sustainable and productive markets.
- Global Ethics Corner: Rwandan Health Care: A Model for the West?
In Rwanda, 92 percent of citizens have government-mandated health insurance, collectively owned by the policy-holders themselves. Does organizing health care based on this mutual ethical obligation make sense for other countries? What do you think?
- Deterrence, Democracy, and the Pursuit of International Justice [Abstract]
Recent indictments of sitting heads of state and rebel leaders engaged in ongoing conflicts are radically altering our conception of international criminal justice. But contrary to the mantra that justice delayed is justice denied, the most promising way to promote justice may be to postpone it.
- The Responsibility to Protect—Five Years On [Abstract]
States' Responsibility to Protect vulnerable populations has become a prominent feature in international debates about preventing genocide and mass atrocities and about protecting potential victims. But profound disagreements persist about RtoP's function, meaning, and proper use.
- Is There a "China Model"? Devin Stewart Interviews Leo Horn-Phathanothai
China has no alternative economic model, says Horn. Its keystone is pragmatism and ad hoc experimentation, combined with the clever exploitation of luck and the fostering of innovation from the ground up. He also discusses China's role in Africa.
- Independence Day: Fifty Years after Lumumba Speech, DRC's Riches Still Not Benefiting her Children
DRC expert Thomas Turner examines Congo's rash of conflicts, its resource curse, elections, and possible withdrawal of MONUC. The state survives, but is too weak to protect its people.
- The Plundered Planet: Why We Must--and How We Can--Manage Nature for Global Prosperity
What, asks Oxford economist Paul Collier, are realistic and sustainable solutions to correcting the mismanagement of the natural world? Can an international standard be established to resolve the complex issues of unchecked profiteering on the one hand and environmental romanticism on the other?
- Devin Stewart Interviews Angolan Activist Rafael Marques
With examples ranging from mobile phones to diamonds, Marques tells of his brave fight to expose the rampant corruption that afflicts Angolan society from top to bottom. The only way to bring about change, he says, is if his fellow Angolans take responsibility for their country.
- Briefly Noted [Full Text]
This section contains a round-up of recent notable books in the field of international affairs.
- Interesting Times: Writings from a Turbulent Decade
George Packer discusses some of his essays from the period of September 11, 2001 to November 4, 2008; the luxury of being able to write long, in-depth articles for "The New Yorker" magazine; and the uncertain future of print journalism.
- Worse Than War: Genocide, Eliminationism, and the Ongoing Assault on Humanity
Rwanda, Bosnia, Cambodia, Darfur, Congo, and more--since World War II, genocide has caused more deaths than all wars put together. Goldhagen analyzes how and why genocides start and proposes steps the international community can take to stop them.
- Crude World: The Violent Twilight of Oil
From Ecuador to Nigeria, in most oil-producing countries oil has not brought any benefits to the poor and has often damaged people's health and ruined the environment, says Peter Maass. As for Iraq, although the war was not "all about oil," oil certainly played an important role.
- Pious Words, Puny Deeds: The "International Community" and Mass Atrocities [Full Text]
Most of the large-scale violence in the world will continue to occur within societies rather than between or among states. Yet the international community still has not developed the ethical-legal consensus or the institutions required to manage this terrible problem.
- Interview with Seth Merrin of Liquidnet Holdings
Seth Merrin is the CEO and founder of Liquidnet, a successful investment firm which gives 1 percent of its pretax income to philanthropic initiatives. Here Merrin discusses Liquidnet's key role in a Youth Village for orphans in Rwanda, modeled on similar ones in Israel.
- "It's Our Turn to Eat: The Story of a Kenyan Whistleblower"
Matthew Hennessey interviews Michela Wrong about her latest book. Their discussion includes the question of aid, corruption, the role of the tribe, and why Obama is not visiting Kenya on his first presidential visit to Africa.
- Global Ethics Corner: International Aid: Does Help Hurt?
According to Dambisa Moyo, large foreign aid flows to Africa disenfranchise Africans and prop up corrupt African leaders. If we follow Moyo's advice and cut off aid, what happens to the millions whose survival depends on it?
- Dead Aid: Why Aid Is Not Working and How There Is a Better Way for Africa
In the past 50 years, Africa has received more than $1 trillion in development-related aid. Has it improved Africans' lives? No, says Dambisa Moyo. In fact, aid has made the situation much worse.
- Obama's Moral Obligation to Africa
Obama is in a unique position to make a difference in Africa, but will he fulfill his campaign promises? Matthew Hennessey has some suggestions for Obama and his Africa team.
- The United Nations and Gender: Has Anything Gone Right?
The UN's record on women's issues has been abysmal, declares Stephen Lewis, particularly in dealing with HIV/AIDS. In order to give 52 percent of the world's population the representation they deserve, it's time to create a special UN Women's Agency.
- Devin Stewart Interviews Seth Kaplan on "Fixing Fragile States"
Seth Kaplan looks at how weak states can promote and leverage "social cohesion" to help build development from the bottom up.
- Keeping the Peace in Africa: Why "African" Solutions Are Not Enough [Abstract]
Instead of searching for "African solutions" which have proved problematic so far, policymakers should focus on developing effective solutions for the complex challenges raised by the issue of armed conflict in Africa.
- Ethics on Film: Discussion of "Hotel Rwanda"
Based on the true story of a Rwandan hotel manager who saved the lives of over 1,200 refugees during the 1994 genocide, this film points blame at the international community and the UN for doing almost nothing to intervene.
- Ethics on Film: Discussion of "Blood Diamond"
Set in Sierra Leone in 1999 in the midst of a civil war, Blood Diamond draws attention to the responsibility of citizens and businesses in the developed world to ensure that the diamonds they buy have not been used to fund conflicts abroad. It also highlights the plight of child soldiers
- A Central African Affair: Chad's Insurgency Highlights Ongoing Genocide in Darfur
The international community could act to stop the genocide in Darfur. For example, it could pressure China and enact an EU trade and investment moratorium. But it's more likely that we will continue to stand by and watch.
- The Resource Curse: A Clean Hands Trust for the People of Sudan (Part 4)
Wenar argues that a trust-and-tariff mechanism could be used against countries that insist on buying resources from the worst regimes. The revenues would go to repressed peoples such as the Sudanese.
- The Resource Curse: Stopping the Flow of Stolen Resources (Part 3)
Calculations show that oil companies illicitly transport into the U.S. over 600 million barrels of oil each year. This is 12.7 percent of U.S. oil imports--more than one barrel in eight.
- The Resource Curse: Might Makes the Right to Sell? (Part 2)
Customary practices left over from the era of absolute state sovereignty still give property rights to whoever can exert coercive control over a population. This might-makes-right rule contradicts the movement toward citizen ownership of natural resources.
- The Resource Curse: Property Rights and the Resource Curse (Part 1)
Because of a major flaw in the international trade system, consumers in rich countries unknowingly buy stolen goods every day. The raw materials used to make these goods are taken from the poorest people in the world, by stealth and by force.
- Innovations in Fighting Corruption
This is a rapporteur's summary from Global Policy Innovations' second Workshop for Ethics and Business. The speakers include representatives from AccountAbility, GE, Lockheed Martin, and the World Bank.
- Dave Eggers. "What Is the What: The Autobiography of Valentino Achak Deng; A Novel."
Autobiography or novel, this is the harrowing story of Deng's flight from the holocaust in Sudan, under constant threat of bombings, beasts, and human murderers, struggling to survive on whatever he could find to eat.
- ROUNDTABLE: Blair's Ethical Legacy
"To view Blair through Iraq alone is to ignore his extraordinary legacy in the areas of liberal interventionism, international development and climate change," says Roberts, while Spring praises his triumph in Northern Ireland and distinguishes between Bush's "moralist" foreign policy and Blair's more successful "ethical" approach.
- Uganda's Civil War and the Politics of ICC Intervention [Full Text]
The International Criminal Court's intervention into the ongoing civil war in northern Uganda evoked a chorus of confident predictions as to its capacity to bring peace and justice to the war-torn region. However, this optimism is unwarranted.
- The Darfur Crisis: Humanitarian Aid in the Balance
The Darfur crisis is one of the most serious in the world, says Weissman of MSF. But contrary to many reports, it is neither a racial war, nor genocide. "The war in Darfur is better characterized as a very nasty civil war which is in the process of spiraling out of control."
- Ethics Be Dammed? China's Water Projects
While the World Bank has greatly reduced its loans for large dams, the Chinese are going full-speed ahead with a spate of dam projects, both at home and in Africa. But the ill effects may outweigh the benefits.
- The West's Reaction to the 2006 China-Africa Summit
The West reacted with vitriol to Beijing's China-Africa Summit, branding China as a "resource-hungry superpower in the making." But is this fair, given the West's own record in Africa, and what options is the West offering China as incentives to change its behavior?
- Human Rights Issues and the Africa-China Economic Relationship
David Shinn describes the background, perceived values, and current diplomatic and human rights issues surrounding the growing economic relationships between China and African nations.
- The New Faces of Christianity: Believing the Bible in the Global South
Professor Philip Jenkins argues that by the year 2025, Africa and Latin America will have the largest number of Christians in the world. According to Jenkins, this is a different kind of Christianity from that which we are used to in the Global North.
- Making Globalization Work
Economist Joseph Stiglitz offers new thinking about the questions that shape the globalization debate, including a plan to restructure the global financial system, ideas for how countries can grow without degrading the environment, and a framework for free and fair global trade.
- Jere Van Dyk Interviews Charlayne Hunter-Gault
Veteran correspondent Hunter-Gault counters what she calls "the four D's of the African apocalypse: death, disease, disaster, and despair," with news about the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD), which is working towards "African solutions to African problems."
- New News Out of Africa: Uncovering Africa's Renaissance
Journalist (and South Africa resident) Hunter-Gault gives a surprisingly optimistic assessment of modern Africa, revealing that there is more to the continent than the bad news of disease, disaster, and despair.
- You Must Set Forth at Dawn: A Memoir
Nobel Prize-winning author and activist Wole Soyinka discusses the current crisis in Nigeria where President Obasanjo tries to subvert the constitution and remain in power for a third term. Soyinka also calls for immediate UN intervention in Darfur.
- Race Against Time: Searching for Hope in AIDS-Ravaged Africa
Lewis offers his personal, often searing, insider's account of the plight of Africa and Africans with AIDS--and the wealthy world's betrayal.
- African States, Aggressive Multilateralism And The WTO Dispute Settlement System
What accounts for the underutilization of the WTO dispute settlement process by states in Africa? What structural factors currently inhibit the ability of states in Africa to use the DSM to their advantage? What can African states learn from the experience of the developing countries that have used the system?
- Responsibility to Protect or Trojan Horse? The Crisis in Darfur and Humanitarian Intervention after Iraq [Excerpt]
What does the world’s engagement with the unfolding crisis in Darfur tell us about the impact of the Iraq war on the norm of humanitarian intervention? Is a global consensus about a "responsibility to protect" more or less likely? There are at least three potential answers to these questions.
- "This Forest Is Ours"
The cultural survival of the Yiaaku people in the Mukogodo forest of Kenya depends upon preserving their intimate relationship with the forest. The Yiaaku want the status of the Mukogodo forest changed from a protected forest to a Trust Forest in their name.
- Rwanda to Darfur
"Are all humans human, or are some more human than others?" asks Roméo Dallaire.
- Bearing Witness to Genocide: Rwanda, Darfur, and the Implications for Future Peacekeeping Operations
In 1994, General Dallaire was the commander of the UN Assistance Mission to Rwanda and powerless to stop the massacre of 800,000 people, who were slaughtered in 100 days. Yet just as in Rwanda ten years ago, the UN is reluctant to use the word "genocide" to describe Darfur.
- Children at War
The ever-growing number of child soldiers across the globe is one of the world's most under-reported stories. "There are an estimated 300,000 child soldiers right now serving as active combatants," says Singer, "and another half-million who are serving in armed forces not at war."
- Three Challenges for the Human Rights Movement: Darfur, Abu Ghraib, and the Role of the United Nations
Kenneth Roth, Executive Director of Human Rights Watch, discusses Darfur, Abu Ghraib, and the role of the UN.
- Reflections on Journalism in the Transition to Democracy [Full Text]
In South Africa, journalists by and large emerged from many years of fighting against state, corporate, and political pressures under apartheid in the 1990s with a fierce commitment to independence.
- Challenges in UN Peacekeeping Operations
The demand for UN peacekeeping troops has risen at an unprecedented rate, says Guéhenno, Under-Secretary General for UN Peacekeeping Operations. This presents enormous challenges, such as mobilizing troops and resources, and deploying them in a timely manner.
- Humanitarianism under Fire
How can humanitarian organizations and their workers maintain their traditional neutrality, impartiality, and independence—and should they?
- When Parks and People Collide
In much of Africa, write Peter G. Veit and Catherine Benson, efforts to safeguard wildlife have violated human rights.
- Working within Nigeria's Sharia Courts
In the face of Nigeria's expansion of religious laws, as Ayesha Imam explains in an interview with "Dialogue," it is important to work within the court system to strengthen respect for women's rights.
- Domestic Violence and HIV Infection in Uganda
According to Lisa W. Karanja, women’s activists have documented the linkage between domestic violence and women’s vulnerability to HIV/AIDS—and they hold the Ugandan government responsible.
- Small Victories, but the War Rages On
Uché U. Ewelukwa responds to Ayesha Imam's article, "Working with Sharia Courts."
- Working within Sharia Takes You Only So Far
Albaqir A. Mukhtar responds to Ayesha Imam's article, "Working with Nigeria's Sharia Courts."
- Mining for the People
After a brutal war funded by the trade of diamonds, Brima maintains that public participation in the diamond mining sector is crucial to peaceful long-term development in Sierra Leone. Crossin critiques the international diamond certification process that seeks to eliminate conflict diamonds.
- Shake Hands with the Devil: The Failure of Humanity in Rwanda
Dallaire recalls the agony of not being able to take action to halt the Rwandan genocide because he lacked the requisite authority as well as manpower and equipment. In essence, he lacked the support of the international community.
- The September 11 Effect [Full Text]
Since it seems that the leaders of the antiterrorist campaign are scripting their objectives to fit as they go along, the public should be more careful in deciding which policies it wants to support.
- Perceptions of the Legitimacy of Women's Human Rights in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa
"While the government has adopted women's rights as an important component of the transformation of South Africa, this does not seem to be a common recognition amongst all citizens. This paper therefore examines the perceptions of the legitimacy of women's rights not by those in legislative positions but by investigating the views of the citizens of the country."
- Global Governance and Genocide in Rwanda [Full Text]
Lang writes: "Read together, [these books] make a fairly convincing case that the UN was indeed responsible for failing to stop the genocide in Rwanda."
- A Problem from Hell: America and the Age of Genocide
Why did the United States largely ignore the Rwandan genocide and yet devote endless time to the contemporaneous Bosnian crisis? According to Samantha Power, the reason is "politics, politics, politics."
- The Graves Are Not Yet Full: Race, Tribe and Power in the Heart of Africa
Tyrannical leaders in modern-day Africa create and stoke ethnic conflict so they can "divide and rule," according to Bill Berkeley. The absence of legitimate institutions and justice has allowed these leaders and their "mafia culture" to rise to a position of preeminence, he says.
- Inconsistency and the Tragedy of Africa's Neglect
Humanitarian intervention is based on the alleviation of human rights violations, but recent actions in Sierra Leone and Kosovo suggest that the practice has less to do with stopping abuses than with furthering the interests of the intervening powers and their advocates.
- Ending Female Genital Mutilation without Human Rights: Two Approaches-Sierra Leone
It is more effective to avoid the cultural and religious rationales of FGM and instead concentrate on the associated health risks, thus creating a more comfortable atmosphere in which to discuss this highly charged issue.
- What Does "International Justice" Look Like in Post-Genocide Rwanda?
"The Tribunal can make a difference for the future of human rights in Rwanda by exposing the truth of the genocide: It was not a result of ancient, tribal hatred, but rather a carefully planned exploitation of ethnic differences by rulers seeking to hold onto their power."
- Why More Africans Don't Use Human Rights Language
What explains the current crisis of human rights and the retreat from the human rights paradigm as an engine of struggle? To begin to understand, we must examine the evolution and practices of the organizations and institutions that espouse the protection of human rights.
- Do International Ethics Matter? Humanitarian Politics in the Sudan [Abstract]
The authors argue that, while all historical situations are in some sense unique, Sudan is not so idiosyncratic that the lessons and the precedents cannot be replicated elsewhere to protect civilians caught between warring sides in civil wars.
- The Real Struggle in South Africa: An Insider's View [Abstract]
Denis Worrall draws on 20th century South African history and his own experience as a South African to show some of the less obvious but extremely important facets of apartheid that directly impact its dissemination.
- Banned in South Africa: A Personal Account
David Russell was a courageous white South African Anglican priest. On October 19, 1977, the government cracked down on the press, organizations, and individuals who fought apartheid. Russell was put under house arrest and forbidden to publish. He and his sister circumvented the ban via this interview, which includes his description of what it's like to live on 5 Rand a month (approx $6), which he did in solidarity with black South Africans.
- The Problems of Doing Good: Somalia as a Case Study in Humanitarian Intervention (Case Study #18)
Why was Somalia selected for intervention, when so many areas are in crisis? The realist argues that the U.S. must be selective; the globalist that global order and standards are essential to national interest.
- Rising Fences: Migrants, Borders, and a New Frontier for Ethics
"What will 2015 be remembered for? The image that comes to mind is 'rising fences.' If we took a satellite photo of the planet, that would be the story; fences going up everywhere. The wars and political chaos of the past year created a massive wave of truly desperate people. The wave is global in scale. Europe has borne the brunt. But the United States, Canada, Australia and many other nations are not immune."