- The Rohingya Crisis in Bangladesh, with BRAC's Muhammad Musa
Muhammad Musa is executive director of BRAC, which is working with the one million Rohingya refugees living in camps in Bangladesh. He describes the problems there, including growing tensions with the host community and the threat of the coming monsoon season, which may bring floods and landslides. He looks forward to the day when the Rohingya can go home to Myanmar, but this can only occur with the help of the international community.
- Carnegie Council Congratulates Michael Ignatieff on Winning Eighth Annual Zócalo Book Prize for "The Ordinary Virtues"
Michael Ignatieff's latest book, "The Ordinary Virtues: Moral Order in a Divided World," which grew out of his Centennial project for Carnegie Council for Ethics in International Affairs, has won the prestigious Zócalo Book Prize for 2018.
- "Why Terrorists Quit" in Indonesia, with Julie Chernov Hwang
Over six years, Julie Chernov Hwang conducted over 100 interviews with current and former leaders and followers of radical Islamist groups in Indonesia to find out why some terrorists finally quit. What did she learn? The key is life skills training, family and community support, and personal development, she says. "If you are going to focus on deradicalization, focus it narrowly on use of violence. Don't try to overhaul someone's worldview."
- Understanding the "Duterte Phenomenon" in the Philippines, with John Gershman
Unlike Trump, Duterte came to the presidency with a history in public service and he knew how to run a government, says John Gershman. "I would relate him in some ways more to the anti-democratic populist movements of Eastern Europe: authoritarian, a very heavy morality dimension to his vision of nationalism, with a focus on things like drugs, and with a healthy dose of misogyny in his rhetoric."
- Crime and Global Justice: The Dynamics of International Punishment, with Daniele Archibugi
Are we witnessing a new era of cosmopolitan justice or are the old principles of victors' justice still in play? Economic and political theorist Daniele Archibugi discusses his new book, "Crime and Global Justice," which examines the history of global criminal justice and presents five case studies: Augusto Pinochet, Slobodan Milošević, Radovan Karadžić, Saddam Hussein, and Omar al-Basheer.
- Carnegie Council Appoints 10 Pacific Delegates for Fact-Finding Trip to the Philippines on Climate Change
In October 2018, Carnegie Council's Asia Dialogues program is leading a fact-finding trip to Manila to investigate the effects of climate change on Philippine politics and society. The Council has appointed 10 U.S. and Asian Pacific Delegates from a variety of professional, regional, and academic backgrounds to join this trip. Learn more about them.
- Hope for Asian Fisheries, with Brett Jenks
With rich and varied coral reefs, Indonesia and the Philippines are critically important for marine biodiversity, says Brett Jenks of Rare, a conservation organization. Overfishing could result in millions losing their livelihoods and leads to degradation of coastal habitats, making them less resilient to climate change. But there is hope. In marine reserves started as pilot projects, fish populations are increasing by as much as 390 percent.
- Liberalism in the Philippines, with Lisandro Claudio
Populist leader President Duterte has killed thousands in his "war on drugs," idolizes Putin, and openly uses fake news and excessive nationalism to consolidate his power. And it's working: he has an 82 percent popularity rating right now. What happened to the nation's liberal democratic heritage? Author and historian Lisandro Claudio discusses the situation and how he is using Youtube videos, articles, and a new book to fight back.
- Normalizing Intolerance in Indonesia, with Sandra Hamid
"Indonesian civil societies and academics are very good at collecting cases of discrimination," says Sandra Hamid, author of "Normalizing Intolerance." "But what we don't have is the ethnography of the everyday life of discrimination, things that are not necessarily discrimination with a capital D; this is like your daily experience." Today we see myriad examples of the gradual normalization of belittling and isolating non-Muslims.
- Piety and Public Opinion: Understanding Indonesian Islam, with Tom Pepinksy
Are there differences in political, social, and economic attitudes among Indonesians--and Indonesian Muslims in particular--based on their levels of religious piety? Intriguingly, Tom Pepinsky and his fellow researchers found that the answer is no; piety is not the deciding factor. Pepinsky also examines Indonesia's approach toward minority rights, which he defines as tolerance for group rights but not for individual rights.
- Fighting Threats to Philippine Democracy, with Joy Aceron
"Despite the vibrancy of civil society, political and economic power continues to be in the hands of very few people in the Philippines. In fact, there are statistics that would say that if you want to make one important policy decision, you only have to talk to about 40 people because that is where power is concentrated." Joy Aceron, of G-Watch talks politics, press freedom, and civil society in this info-packed podcast.
- Motorcycles & the Art of Politics in Thailand, with Claudio Sopranzetti
Anthropologist Sopranzetti's new book discusses the surprising role of motorcycle taxi drivers in a recent coup in Thailand, and their important place in everyday Thai life. In this fascinating interview, he also looks at the bigger picture: "there is a larger trend in East Asia of a certain Chinese model of authoritarianism that is not outside the rule of law, but in fact uses the rule of law to govern through other methods."
- Political Tribes: Group Instinct and the Fate of Nations, with Amy Chua
"The United States today is starting to display destructive political dynamics much more typically associated with developing countries: ethno-nationalist movements, the erosion of trust in our institutions and electoral outcomes, and above all, the transformation of democracy into an engine of zero-sum political tribalism."
- Is Indonesia Becoming Like Pakistan? with Andreas Harsono
The maximum penalty for blasphemy in Pakistan is death, and public protest is not allowed. Indonesia is nowhere near as bad as this--yet. "Indonesia is now going down the Pakistan route," says Andreas Harsono of Human Rights Watch. "There are more and more political manipulations using the blasphemy law, and there are more and more discriminatory regulations against minorities in Indonesia."
- Reading List and Discussion Questions on Climate Change and The Philippines
With severe typhoons a regular occurrence, the Philippines has become the portrait of climate change victimhood. This 10-week Asia Dialogues Program reading list covers all aspects of how the nation is grappling with climate change.
- Articles Resulting from Carnegie Council Religion and Tolerance Research Delegation to Indonesia, October 2017
In October 2017, Carnegie Council's Asia Dialogues program led a group of 12 Pacific Delegates from seven countries and a diverse set of professional backgrounds to Indonesia. Amid growing Islamophobia and populism in Europe and the United States, a more complete picture of Islam is crucial, and as the world's largest Muslim nation, Indonesia has the potential to shape the way the world's fastest growing and most contentious religion is perceived worldwide.
- Call for Applications for Manila, Philippines, Fact-Finding Trip, October 2018, Deadline March 16
Calling Americans and East Asians under 40 to join Carnegie Council's October fact-finding trip to Manila, which will conduct dialogues with experts and practitioners to explore the effects of climate change on Philippine politics and society. Topics may include: rising sea levels, disaster response, human rights, migration, community resilience, gender equality, and climate change mitigation and adaptation.
- "Modern Slavery" with Siddharth Kara
In his third book on slavery, which took 16 years of research, Siddharth Kara calculates that there are roughly 31 million slaves worldwide, at least half of them in South Asia. We need to apply much more resources and compassion to end "this horrible indignity."
- Moral Leadership Missing in Burma, with Ambassador Derek Mitchell
Former ambassador to Burma Derek Mitchell examines the complex situation there, including the roots of the ongoing Rohingya crisis and China's influence there. Aung San Suu Kyi is not providing the necessary leadership, he says--despite her constraints she should be speaking out about the Rohingya and about free speech, for example. Nevertheless, she has been given too much flak, and this has become counterproductive.
- Top Carnegie Council Resources, 2017
2017 will be remembered for upheavals across the board and Carnegie Council's audience picks reflect this. Our most popular podcasts and web resources this year focused on shifts in the established geopolitical order; migrants and refugees; and the disruptions brought about by new technologies.
- Rescue: Refugees and the Political Crisis of Our Time, with David Miliband
Today there are 65 million people who have fled their homes because of conflict or persecution, says the International Rescue Committee's David Miliband. These are refugees not economic migrants, and half of them are children. It's a long-term crisis that will last our lifetimes. Why should we care? And what can we do about it, both at a policy level and as individuals?
- Over 60 Organizations in 30+ Countries Celebrate Global Ethics Day, 2017
October 18, 2017 marked the fourth annual Global Ethics Day, with participation from over 60 organizations and individuals from 31 countries on five continents. Founded by Carnegie Council in 2014 to celebrate its centennial, Global Ethics Day is a global teach-in, an opportunity for institutions to explore the role of ethics in a globalized world. From the Gambia to Nicaragua to Romania, everyone celebrated in their own way.
- The Rohingya Crisis: "Myanmar's Enemy Within" with Francis Wade
Francis Wade, author of "The Enemy Within," a new book on the Rohingya crisis in Myanmar, explains the historical background to the persecution of the Muslim Rohingya minority and gives a first-hand account of the terrible situation now. Has democracy been good for Burma? Will some Rohingya refugees become Islamic extremists?
- The Rise of Duterte in the Philippines, with Richard Heydarian
Duterte is part of an arc of populism in emerging market democracies such as Turkey and India, says author Haydarian, but unlike populist movements in developed economies, its main supporters are the rising middle class. This newly prosperous group demands better living conditions and is increasingly attracted to strongmen leaders like Duterte, "who promise overnight solutions to very complicated 21st-century problems."
- Carnegie Council's 2017 Religion & Pluralism Research Delegation to Yogyakarta, Indonesia
From October 15-21, 2017, Devin Stewart, senior director of Carnegie Council's Asia Dialogues program, led a group of 12 Pacific Delegates from seven countries and a diverse set of professional backgrounds to Yogyakarta to examine the role of religion and pluralism in Indonesian politics and society. The delegates participated in classroom discussions, expert lectures, cultural activities, and site visits.
- New Book, "The Ordinary Virtues: Moral Order in a Divided World" by Carnegie-Uehiro Centennial Chair Michael Ignatieff
Carnegie Council congratulates Michael Ignatieff on the publication of "The Ordinary Virtues." This important book is the culmination of his Carnegie Council Centennial project, Global Ethical Dialogues, a multi-year initiative that engaged societies across the world in the quest for a global ethic--shared values with which to tackle problems that transcend national boundaries.
- Islam in Indonesia's Political Economy with Wayne Forrest
Indonesia is enjoying economic growth and the reemergence of democracy, yet it is troubling that the influence of Islam in politics is also growing. "I'm still optimistic that Indonesia can weather these outside Islamic influences that come from the Middle East and that are not really from their culture," says Wayne Forrest, president of the American Indonesian Chamber of Commerce (AICC).
- Stratfor's Rodger Baker on the Rebalancing of World Politics and Asia
"I think the biggest impact of Donald Trump's presidency, particularly in Asia-Pacific, has been the concept of uncertainty," says Baker, citing the lack of a clear and concise policy from the administration. "Uncertainty, if the United States were just a small peripheral country, is manageable; uncertainty when the United States is such a large and impactful country becomes very difficult to manage."
- Ziad Haider: U.S.-Asia Economic Ties Under Trump
In this post-TPP world where the U.S. has taken a step back from Asia, the vacuum is being filled by China's initiatives, such as the One Belt One Road, says Ziad Haider, former State Department special representative for commercial and business affairs. Nevertheless, we shouldn't fall into the narrative of "The United States and China are locked into competition." China's actions also offer opportunities for the U.S.
- Democracy and its Discontents: Resources from Carnegie Council
Carnegie Council presents a collection of recent talks and interviews on the workings of democracy; the decline of the liberal order and the rise of populism; illiberal and partial democracies; and new threats to democracy in this digital age.
- Mira Rapp-Hooper on "Subcontracting" U.S. Policy Toward Asia
The U.S. and China have fundamentally different priorities regarding the Korean Peninsula, explains Asia expert Rapp-Hooper. "So, by subcontracting North Korea policy to China," she says, "I think the United States is evincing some amount of naïveté on how far Beijing is likely to actually be willing to go."
- Top 10 Carnegie Council Podcasts for the 2016-17 Program Year
Carnegie Council presents the top 10 most downloaded podcasts from our program year, July 2016-June 2017. Topics include Japan and the Philippines; the potential effects of new technologies; and the troubled state of U.S. and global politics.
- Conversation with Raymond Kuo: Can Trump be a Bismarck in Asia?
"This has happened before where we've had a great power who is essentially the leader of the international system taking a transactional approach. The closest example would be maybe Bismarck in the 1870s until the eve of World War I. There it worked quite well. . . . The drawbacks of this, of course, are that it is highly unstable."
- The U.S. Navy's View on Security in Asia and Beyond
Carnegie Council's Devin Stewart talks with Admiral John Richardson, the U.S. Navy's most senior-ranking officer. Topics include strategy; the security challenges the Navy faces today, focusing particularly on the Pacific; and the need for a bigger Navy. Admiral Richardson also discusses the Navy's core values: honor, courage and commitment.
- The Coming War with China? The Ethics of Confrontation in the Pacific
Are the United States and China on the brink of war? Can the two nations avoid miscalculation and instead find common ground? Find out what this expert panel has to say.
- Democracy and the Deep State in Myanmar
In this fascinating interview, Maureen Aung-Thwin, founder of the Burma Project at Open Society Foundations, describes how the Project helped Burma's transition to democracy starting in 1993, and what the situation is today. Our aim was to put ourselves out of a job, says Aung-Thwin, and you could say we succeeded--but there's still a lot of work to do.
- Carnegie Council Appoints Pacific Delegates for Fact-Finding Trip to Indonesia on Religion and Tolerance
In October 2017, Carnegie Council's Asia Dialogues program is leading a fact-finding trip to Yogyakarta, Indonesia, to investigate religion and tolerance. As the largest Muslim nation, Indonesia has the potential to shape the way the world's fastest growing and most contentious religion is perceived worldwide.
- The Main(e) Concern in the South China Sea
On the 119th anniversary of the start of the Spanish-American War, the U.S. is facing another potential maritime conflict, this time with China. What lessons should the Trump administration learn from this war? What are the ethical and economic considerations of a possible conflict in the South China Sea?
- Easternization: Asia's Rise and America's Decline from Obama to Trump and Beyond
"Financial Times" chief foreign affairs commentator Gideon Rachman says, "We've reached the point where the West's grip on world affairs begins to loosen." China's economic rise is, indeed, a big reason for this shift, but how do Brexit, Crimea, and "red lines" fit into the story? What will be the effect on Southeast Asia, Australia, and Africa?
- Pacific Delegates (2017)
Carnegie Council's Asia Dialogues program is leading a weeklong fact-finding trip to Yogyakarta, Indonesia, during October 2017. Amid growing Islamophobia and populism in Europe and the United States, a more complete picture of Islam is crucial, and as the world's largest Muslim nation, Indonesia has the potential to shape the way the world's fastest growing and most contentious religion is perceived worldwide.
- "In Cambodia, 'democracy' is just a term . . ."
Phnom Penh-based human rights lawyer Sophorn Sek discusses the state of his nation's governance in this eye-opening interview. From corruption and nepotism to suspicious murders of government critics to tension over the role of China, Cambodia is facing a challenging time.
- Duterte's Drug War and Human Rights in the Philippines and Southeast Asia
President Duterte has created a human rights calamity, says Phelim Kine of Human Rights Watch. In just over over eight months, 7,000 of the poorest, most marginalized Filipinos have been killed. What's needed is a UN special investigation. Without one, and without sustained exposure of these killings, things are only going to get worse.
- Indonesia's Jihadists, and the Rise of Female Terrorists
Indonesia is sometimes described as "the smiling face of Islam," but the reality is much more complex. Naraniyah explains the shifting landscape of Indonesian Islamic extremist groups, and notes that women are playing an increasingly important role, many of them inspired by images on social media of female ISIS supporters around the world.
- Orville Schell on China's Role in the World
Orville Schell has been reporting on China since 1970. In this wide-ranging and insightful conversation he looks at China and the U.S. exit from TPP; North Korea; the South China Sea; China's values system (or lack of one); human rights; climate change; and more.
- Nationalism: A Modern Asset
"We are currently living in the rapidly globalizing world of the 21st century. This means that the barriers of communication and cultural exchange are eliminated. Consequently, nationalism grows into a crucial asset to have and will always be essential, especially in this open world. As an example, take my home country, Indonesia."
- The Secret War in Laos and the Role of the CIA
Josh Kurlantzick, author of a new book on the U.S. secret war in Laos from 1961-73, notes that the war was responsible for greatly increasing the power of the CIA. "Today the CIA, together with Special Forces, has become the tip of the spear in the U.S. war on terror," he continues, and it's very unlikely that it will be "de-fanged" under the new administration.
- Former U.S. Ambassador to Myanmar Reflects on the Democratic Transition
What were Myanmar's major challenges during its transition to democracy--and indeed to this day? What was the U.S. role in the transition? What is the situation with the Rohingya minority? How will the Trump administration approach Myanmar, and Southeast Asia in general? For answers, don't miss this discussion with Ambassador Mitchell.
- Sensible Advice for Trump's Asia Policy
"Hopefully, 'America First' really means peace through strength; it means putting our economy and our economic policy at the forefront of our strategy; it means staying strong but using our force in only the most judicious manner." Asia-Pacific security expert Patrick Cronin analyzes the situation in Asia and offers practical advice for the new administration.
- Call for Applications for Indonesia Fact-Finding Trip, October 2017
The Asia Dialogues program will lead a one-week fact-finding trip to Yogyakarta, Indonesia, the week of October 16, 2017, to explore issues relating to religion in politics and society. We are accepting applications from students and professionals under 40 from the U.S. and East Asia. Thanks to the Henry Luce Foundation, airfare and hotel expenses are covered.
- Carnegie Council and the New Administration
Other organizations will no doubt focus on analyses of leadership style, rhetoric, and political conflict. At Carnegie Council, we will focus on the ethical principles at stake in the actual policies of the new administration--specifically its foreign policy. We are following three policy areas closely: alliances, climate, and free speech.
- Virtual Citizenship for Refugees: A Proposal
At last, a practical, humane, and cost-effective proposal to help cope with the nearly 20 million refugees and asylum seekers worldwide, from philosophers Christian Barry and Philip Gerrans.
- Indonesia's Growing Islamist Populism
November and December 2016 saw mass demonstrations in Jakarta, the largest protests in Indonesia's history. The demonstrators demanded that the city governor, an ethnic Chinese and a Christian, be prosecuted and then arrested for blasphemy against Islam. What are the forces behind these confrontations and what will be the consequences?
- Top 10 Carnegie Council Resources, 2016
In a year that will be remembered as era-defining, Carnegie Council's most popular 2016 podcasts and web resources focused on Asia, Russia, human rights, technology, and the fight against terrorism. Check out this varied list, which gives you an idea of the scope of the Council's work.
- Islamic Exceptionalism: How the Struggle over Islam Is Reshaping the World
Many liberals hope that Islam will follow the same trajectory as Christianity and the West: a reformation and eventually secularization. But we should beware of assuming that all societies will follow the same path, says Shadi Hamid. Indeed, he has come to the reluctant conclusion that Islam will be resistant to secularization for a long time to come.
- Powerplay: The Origins of the American Alliance System in Asia
Why is there no NATO for Asia? After World War II, why did the United States opt for bilateral relationships with countries like Japan and South Korea? As Georgetown's Victor Cha explains, this was a "powerplay" by the Americans to contend with a "dangerous" and complex East Asia. Does this arrangement still make sense today?
- Managing Resource Conflict with a Human Rights Approach
Earth Institute research scientist Joshua Fisher explores the links between natural resource management, conflict, and climate change in this conversation with Senior Fellow Devin Stewart. With a focus on gold mining in Papua New Guinea, how can governments, corporations, and citizens work together to build trust?
- Southeast Asia—The Islamic State's New Front?
From Bangladesh to the Philippines, the Islamic State's efforts to win over South and Southeast Asians have been substantial and have increased over the past two years. What have been the results across the region, home to the largest number of Muslims in the world? What does the future hold?
- The Philippines, the South China Sea, and the Many Sides of President Duterte
Richard Heydarian, of Manila's De La Salle University, discusses the Philippines' landmark legal victory against China in the South China Sea dispute, and why the Sea is so important. He also examines President Duterte's multiple dimensions, and why he seems to be very popular among Filipinos.
- What to Make of Duterte's Philippines
John Gershman of NYU discusses with Carnegie Council's Devin Stewart the state of Filipino politics since the election of Rodrigo Duterte and where the country may be headed. Topics covered include the Philippines' anti-drug campaign, extrajudicial killings, climate change vulnerability, and diplomatic relations with China, the U.S., and ASEAN.
- Living Together in Peace: Religious Diversity in Indonesia
"Indonesia is an interesting example of where increasing intensity of religious practices among Muslims and Christians is not the factor that creates conflict and violence. In fact, increasing intensity of religious practice often goes side by side in a society where the communities live in relative harmony and with respect for each other."
- The "Living, Breathing Modern Miracle" of ASEAN
Southeast Asia is the most diverse region on Earth, says Kishore Mahbubani, yet instead of a clash of civilizations, ASEAN is bringing about a fusion of civilizations--something that other regions could learn from. "So Southeast Asia, especially ASEAN, brings a lot of hope to the world. That's why I call it a living, breathing modern miracle."
- Islam and Pluralism in Indonesia
"It's going on 20 years that Indonesia has been engaged in a very important experiment, which is to create a democracy in a Muslim-majority place," explains journalist and scholar Margaret Scott. In this valuable interview, she untangles the complex relationships between various factions of Islam and politics in the world's most populous Muslim-majority country.
- Just Out: "Update on the Rule of Law for Human Rights in ASEAN"
Carnegie Council Pacific Fellow Francis Tom Temprosa is the lead researcher for an important new report titled "Update on the Rule of Law for Human Rights in ASEAN: The Path to Integration." Composed of 10 Country Reports and a Synthesis Report, this study is from the Human Rights Resource Centre in Jakarta.
- How Rights for Indigenous Peoples Can Save the Environment
From Greenland to Kenya, indigenous peoples are fighting for their land against governments, corporations, and climate change. UN special rapporteur Victoria Tauli-Corpuz, herself an indigenous leader in the Philippines, discusses the challenges facing her country and how to navigate through the world of politics and big business.
- "Religious Harmony" Regulations Creating Dissonance in Indonesia
Andreas Harsono of Human Rights Watch discusses the complex situation in Indonesia, including the 2006 religious harmony regulation supposed to protect religious minorities, but which in practice has enabled religious majorities to discriminate against minorities; the draconian blasphemy laws; Islamic extremism; and much more.
- The Fifth Annual Moscow Conference on International Security
David Speedie attended this important three-day conference and reports that "a global array of speakers articulated a corresponding range of country/area-specific concerns, much of which was familiar but nevertheless important to hear." There were more than 600 official delegates from 83 countries--the most notable absentees being the U.S. and the UK.
- New Edited Volume, "Religion, Public Policy and Social Transformation in Southeast Asia"
Carnegie Council's Pacific Fellow Dr. Dicky Sofjan is the editor of the new volume, "Religion, Public Policy and Social Transformation in Southeast Asia: Managing Religious Diversity." It is the first volume of a three-part book series dealing with religion and its interface with the state and society in Southeast Asia.
- "The Third World War Will be About Water"
Rajendra Singh, known as the "water man of India," believes that critically depleted aquifers around the world can be revived with community effort.
- Carnegie Council Announces the Appointment of Six Pacific Fellows
Carnegie Council is pleased to announce the appointment of six Pacific Fellows based in Japan, Indonesia, and the Philippines. The fellowship is part of Carnegie Council's new Asia Dialogues program, which seeks to advance ethical inquiry around contentions within Asia and the United States.
- Blood Year: The Unraveling of Western Counterterrorism
ISIS consists of three interlocked threats and is quite different from al-Qaeda, says counterterrorism authority David Kilcullen. To come up with a workable strategy going forward, we have to understand exactly what went wrong in the years since 9/11 and admit that everyone bears part of the blame, from "reckless" Bush to "feckless" Obama.
- The Lonely Resistance: Protesting Chinese Resource Exploitation on the Tibetan Plateau
China has dammed every major river in Tibet with many more dams in the planning stage. This and the pollution of waters through mining have created serious problems for Tibetans and those in neighboring countries. Despite political repression and profound isolation, Tibetans are struggling to make these dire conditions known to the rest of the world.
- What Does Singapore Owe its Migrant Workers?
In Tuas View, an industrial neighborhood in Singapore, migrant workers have little reason to leave their buildings. They live in a 15,000 square foot dormitory, where they enjoy fitness centers, movie theaters, food courts, and even a beer garden. Take a closer look, however, and a darker reality emerges.
- The "Singapore School" of Asian Values: Down But Not Out?
When the Asian financial crisis of 1997 blunted the so-called "Asian Economic Miracle," critics--many Westerners, but also Asians tired of the tendentious claims of their cultural elites--bid good riddance to the end of "Asian values." Yet the "Singapore school" could well experience a revival in the foreseeable future, albeit in a different form.
- The Reduction of Mass Atrocity Crimes in Southeast Asia, the Responsibility to Protect (R2P), and the Individual Responsibility to Protect (IR2P)
For a variety of reasons, Southeast Asia has experienced a significant reduction in mass atrocity crimes in the last 30 years. Frank suggests that R2P and the individual responsibility to protect (IR2P, advanced by Edward Luck and Dana Luck), when yoked, can help entrench, sustain, and strengthen norms that help prevent mass atrocity crimes.
- Pacific: Silicon Chips and Surfboards, Coral Reefs and Atom Bombs, Brutal Dictators, Fading Empires, and the Coming Collision of the World's Superpowers
Master storyteller, researcher, and traveler Simon Winchester takes us on a fascinating voyage through the Pacific, tying it all together with two ethical questions: Should the Americans and the Chinese have a level playing field? And should we respect the ways of the Pacific ancients?
- Innocents Abroad? Liberal Educators in Illiberal Societies
Is anything in liberal education nonnegotiable? With numerous expansions abroad, American universities are testing these limits.
- Migrant Deaths Worldwide
There is no going back to a world in which migration can be prevented. The only solution to the global crisis of migrant deaths is to merge humanitarian efforts to aid and rescue migrants with coordinated, cooperative efforts to open safe, long-term migration channels throughout regions, and even the world.
- Addressing Modern-Day Slavery in the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP)
Of the world's 36 million trafficking victims, nearly two-thirds are from Asian countries. In order for the United States and Asia to have a promising future in trade, foreign policy negotiations, and mutual investment in socioeconomic development, there must be a closer collaboration to eradicate this terrible crime.
- Lawlessness: Malaysia and Its Law of Rules
With restrictive laws and harassment touching NGOs, journalists, religious and ethnic minorities, and the LGBT community, Malaysia's rule of law problem cannot be ignored. How can the country's "rotting" institutions be reformed?
- The Participation Gap
"Inequality doesn't result only from differences in income or wealth (the focus of French economist Thomas Piketty). It also has a political dimension, fueled by unequal access to power and the norm that all citizens deserve an equal voice."
- Essay on Singapore and the U.S. Wins 2014 Trans-Pacific Student Contest
The winning entry from Salina Lee (USA) and Nelson Chew (Singapore) is written as a seemingly light-hearted conversation between two good friends on a sightseeing trip in New York Harbor. Yet the essay goes deeper, looking at serious topics that concern both nations: civil liberties, education methods, and race.
- The Little Red Dot and the Land of the Free: Singapore and the United States
What defines your country? How do you perceive someone from a totally different background? Who would have guessed that an exchange between a Singaporean and an American would offer insights on the subtle connections that make two vastly different countries so very comparable.
- Age of Ambition: Chasing Fortune, Truth and Faith in the New China
In Chinese, the word for ambition is "wild heart" and for millennia individual aspirations were looked down on, as the group always came first. How China has changed!
- The Evolution of a Corporate Idealist: When Girl Meets Oil
How can corporations work to prevent human rights violations on their watch, as well as disasters like the BP Deepwater Horizon explosion? Christine Bader discusses her time at BP, where she was part of the invisible army of people inside corporations who are pushing for safer and more responsible practices.
- Asia's Cauldron: The South China Sea and the End of a Stable Pacific
No wonder the South China Sea is important to China, says Robert Kaplan. It's the Mediterranean of Asia, the center of international commerce, including energy shipments. Plus, if the Chinese control it and thus gain access to the Indian Ocean, China will have a two-ocean navy, transforming it in military terms from a regional power into a world power.
- By All Means Necessary: How China's Resource Quest is Changing the World
As China's urban middle class expands, China's government--and private companies--are traveling the globe in pursuit of fuel, ores, water, and farmland. And the government has all kinds of tools to bring to bear, from public diplomacy and backroom deals, to low-cost financing and low-cost labor. How is this quest changing the world, including China itself?
- Ethics Matter: Top Risks and Ethical Decisions 2014 with Ian Bremmer
So what should we look out for in 2014? "The economic risks are receding. The geopolitical risks are becoming more important," says political risk guru Ian Bremmer. Don't miss this entertaining but fact-filled talk for insights on global affairs, from U.S. foreign policy, to the Middle East, Asia, Russia, Europe, and emerging markets.
- Japan 1941: Countdown to Infamy
Why did Japan recklessly attack the United States in 1941, launching a war that most of the nation's leaders knew they were almost certain to lose? Why did they go ahead, despite heated internal debates? Get the inside story from a Japanese perspective.
- Year Zero: A History of 1945
Ian Buruma makes a compelling case that many of the modern triumphs, such as the European Union, the United Nations, and Japanese pacifism, as well as some of the world's unresolved conflicts in Europe, Asia, and the Middle East, all took root in 1945, that fateful year of retribution, revenge, suffering, and healing.
- Ethics on Film: Discussion of "The Act of Killing"
It is not hyperbole to call this documentary an epochal film. It brings viewers into the minds of mass murderers, illuminates a horrific piece of recent history that few know anything about, and could end up ushering in a new era in Indonesian politics and identity.
- Burma's Reforms and Regional Cooperation in East Asia
"Though the 2010 elections that brought a civilian government to power were not free and fair, the new president, Thein Sein, has embarked upon a path-breaking and seemingly genuine reform process," argue Joshua Kurlantzick and Devin Stewart in this report prepared for the Canadian government.
- Mindsets May Hinder Progress in Myanmar
Great excitement surrounds the World Economic Forum meeting in Myanmar this week, an indication of the country's new openness. But while the media has highlighted Myanmar's political, economic, and social challenges, less discussed are the mindsets that underlie them. Stewart's report is based on several years of interviews in Myanmar and the region.
- Essay on Ethics of Cybersecurity Wins Trans-Pacific Contest: Co-Authors from China (Stanford U) and U.S. (Oxford U)
What is the greatest ethical challenge facing U.S.-Asia relations? In this unique contest, we challenged American and East Asian students to submit a joint essay or video to answer this question. Responses included the threat of cyber-war, sweatshops, human rights, censorship, neo-imperialism, and climate change.
- Human Trafficking Around the World: Hidden in Plain Sight
Victims of trafficking are both young and old, male and female. They can be found working in factories, fields, brothels, private homes, and innumerable other settings. They may be hidden behind walls or seen in plain view. How can trafficking be stopped?
- Exit, Voice, and Loyalty at the Khmer Rouge Tribunal: Should the International Community Stay or Go?
The Khmer Rouge Tribunal is in big trouble, much of it financial. But the financial deficit is the result of something deeper: a responsibility deficit. The UN and the international community owe it to the victims to persevere--and quickly, before all those under indictment die of old age.
- Public Affairs: China's Search for Security
In this masterly and comprehensive talk, Andrew Nathan looks at the world from Beijing's viewpoint and sees a very challenging environment for China. He identifies four rings of security concerns: inside China's territory; its 24 surrounding countries; six regional systems; and the rest of the world.
- Thought Leader: Somaly Mam
"When the people say, "Somaly, what you do is bad," I always see my good, my peace, a reality. When I see the girls that have been saved when they were six years old, and right now they are in law school and they get married--then I have done a great thing, and I have my peace in my mind."
- The Great Convergence: Asia, the West, and the Logic of One World
As more people become prosperous and interstate conflicts diminish, there is a convergence between East and West, says Kishore Mahbubani. Now we have to change our mindset accordingly and act as one united world on issues such as climate change. One important step is to reform the UN.
- The Revenge of Geography: What the Map Tells Us About Coming Conflicts and the Battle Against Fate
With a breadth and depth of knowledge spanning not only current geopolitics but centuries of history, Robert Kaplan shows us the crucial importance of geography in shaping our destinies. Geography still matters, and always will.
- A Fragile New Burma
Back from a recent fact-finding trip to Burma, veteran Asia correspondent Barbara Crossette reports on the complex situation there. People have high hopes for more openness and prosperity, yet there is a total lack of infrastructure, several serious religious ethnic conflicts, and some simmering doubts about the leadership capabilities of icon Aung San Suu Kyi.
- Will 2013 Launch the Asian Century? Don’t Count on It
If an Asian Century means one in which Asian culture and politics dominate the globe, it won't be coming any time soon. Instead, for many decades to come, Asians will likely seek to increase their freedom and equality to accompany their growing prosperity--the universal values that define the American Century.
- Global Ethics Corner: Is It Too Soon to Normalize Relations with Burma?
As Burma begins to reform its government, the U.S. has been quick to begin normalizing relations with the Asian state. Are geostrategic considerations overshadowing lingering questions about human rights as U.S. foreign policy pivots toward Asia?
- Public Affairs: America in the 21st Century: A View from Asia
The good, the bad, and the ugly: distinguished Singaporean Kishore Mahbubani politely but firmly tells Americans how Asians see them, and warns, "the world that is coming is a world outside your comfort zones."
- Is the World Becoming More Peaceful?
In this vigorous discussion, two leading thinkers in global affairs--Harvard professor Steven Pinker and "Atlantic" correspondent Robert D. Kaplan--take on the subject of world peace, a core interest of Carnegie Council.
- From the Ruins of Empire: The Intellectuals Who Remade Asia
Pankaj Mishra explores the little-known history of the first generation of Asian intellectuals, such as China's Liang Qichao and the Persian political activist al-Afghani, and discusses how their ideas influenced Asia's postcolonial state-building programs.
- Indonesia's Lessons for the Middle East and North Africa and other Emerging Democracies
Over the past decade, Indonesia has accomplished one of the most successful processes of democratization among developing countries. What were the critical decisions that made this possible?
- The Impossible State: North Korea, Past and Future
Policy expert and scholar Victor Cha lifts the curtain on North Korea, one of the world's most isolated, poorly-understood, and dangerous nations, and explains why he believes that the level of risk has escalated since Kim Jong-il's death.
- The Oil Curse: How Petroleum Wealth Shapes the Development of Nations
According to Michael Ross, it's no coincidence that major oil-producing countries have less democracy, fewer opportunities for women, more frequent civil wars, and more volatile economic growth than the rest of the world.
- Global Ethics Corner: A Force for Good or Evil? Google Maps and Border Wars
Border disputes have been around for thousands of years, but in the age of Google Maps, they are taking on another dimension. Does Google bear any responsibility if a conflict arises because of borders it has drawn? Or should we all realize that these maps are just for "entertainment"?
- Deng Xiaoping and the Transformation of China
Deng Xiaoping was one of the most important leaders of the 20th century. Scholar Ezra Vogel discusses Deng's life, focusing on his work in opening up China to other countries. Vogel also grapples with the 1989 Tiananmen Square massacre, which was carried out on Deng's orders.
- All the Missing Souls: A Personal History of the War Crimes Tribunals
David Scheffer was at the forefront of the efforts leading to criminal tribunals for the Balkans, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, and Cambodia. His quest has been to "to discover the right formula, in ever-changing international circumstances, to confront monstrous evil and to do so in the courtroom."
- UN Population Fund Report
Now that the population has reached seven billion, most of the focus is on the numbers. In this report, however, Crossette explores individual stories around the world to shed light on such issues as aging populations, migration, and the desire of women for family planning.
- Monsoon: The Indian Ocean and the Future of American Power
Robert D. Kaplan declares that the Indian Ocean area will be the true nexus of world power and conflict in the coming years and it is here that U.S. foreign policy must concentrate if America is to remain dominant in an ever-changing world.
- Washington Rules: America's Path to Permanent War
It is time to examine the Washington consensus on national security and why it must change, says Professor Bacevich--and to acknowledge that fixing Afghanistan should not take precedence over fixing Detroit.
- The Ethical Implications of Sea-Level Rise Due to Climate Change [Abstract]
Does humanity have a moral obligation toward the estimated millions of individuals who will be displaced from their homes over the course of this century primarily due to sea-level rise as the earth's climate warms? What form should these actions take?
- The Tenth Parallel: Dispatches from the Fault Line between Christianity and Islam
More than half of the world's Muslims and Christians live along the tenth parallel in Africa or in Asia. How do these two great intersecting faiths interact?
- Eco Innovations: Small Spark, Big Impact
How do sustainable innovations make it to market? Three very different inventors talk about their creative process, how their inventions have had a social impact, and what a more sustainable society might look like.
- NWFZs: Pursuing a World Free of Nuclear Weapons
Today there are five Nuclear Weapon Free Zone (NWFZ) treaties, yet only one has been fully ratified. Sadly, the reservations of the nuclear weapon states, specifically those of the United States, hinder the success and complete denuclearization of these designated zones.
- The Responsibility to Protect—Five Years On [Abstract]
States' Responsibility to Protect vulnerable populations has become a prominent feature in international debates about preventing genocide and mass atrocities and about protecting potential victims. But profound disagreements persist about RtoP's function, meaning, and proper use.
- Book Review: "The End of the Free Market" by Ian Bremmer
State capitalism differs from free-market capitalism in that politics rather than profit is the main driver of decision-making. For this reason, it threatens to curtail free markets and the global economy.
- The Great Brain Race: How Global Universities Are Reshaping the World
Ben Wildavsky shows how international competition for the brightest minds is transforming the world of higher education, and why this revolution should be welcomed, not feared.
- Rise of the Rest
The Council's "Rise of the Rest" project focuses not on decline of existing powers but on the emergence of others. The U.S. should accept these developments for what they are, recognize the interests of others, and see opportunity for burden sharing rather than threat to primacy.
- How Enemies Become Friends: The Sources of Stable Peace
Diplomatic engagement with rivals, far from being appeasement, is critical to rapprochement between adversaries, says Charles Kupchan, and diplomacy, not economic interdependence, creates the path to peace.
- Global Jobs Update: Assessing the Quality and Pace of Recovery
A panel of experts from the International Labour Organization, business, academia, and the EU discuss the actions taken to address this multi-faceted crisis, and give suggestions for further ways to generate jobs.
- Forces of Fortune: The Rise of the New Muslim Middle Class and What it Will Mean for Our World
The real key to bringing economic and political change to the Muslim world is capitalism, says Vali Nasr. Entrepreneurial middle classes the world over have a stake in the system and are more interested in economic success than religious extremism.
- Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Non-violent Action from Gandhi to the Present
Should civil resistance be seen as potentially replacing violence completely, or as a phenomenon that operates in conjunction with, and as a modification of, power politics?
- Worse Than War: Genocide, Eliminationism, and the Ongoing Assault on Humanity
Rwanda, Bosnia, Cambodia, Darfur, Congo, and more--since World War II, genocide has caused more deaths than all wars put together. Goldhagen analyzes how and why genocides start and proposes steps the international community can take to stop them.
- Pious Words, Puny Deeds: The "International Community" and Mass Atrocities [Full Text]
Most of the large-scale violence in the world will continue to occur within societies rather than between or among states. Yet the international community still has not developed the ethical-legal consensus or the institutions required to manage this terrible problem.
- Lessons in Disaster: McGeorge Bundy and the Path to War in Vietnam
For Bundy, the ultimate actor in Vietnam was not the military, the secretary of state or of defense, or the national security advisor. It was the president. What does this teach us about other American wars?
- How East Asians View Democracy
Nathan and Chu report on surveys in five new democracies (Korea, Taiwan, the Philippines, Thailand, and Mongolia), one established one (Japan), and two nondemocracies (China and Hong Kong).
- David Speedie Interviews Ted Sorensen
"A president who doesn't go to war may show more courage than one who does," said JFK. In a wide-ranging conversation, Sorensen discusses JFK, Cuba, and Vietnam; the 2008 Russia/Georgia conflict; McCain's idea of a League of Nations; and the promise of Obama.
- MYANMAR: Reviewing the Argument for Humanitarian Intervention
In the face of the disastrous cyclone in Myanmar, the question of humanitarian intervention inevitably arises. A selection of journal articles explores this complex issue.
- Damming Public Opinion: The Risks of China's Economic Diplomacy in Cambodia
From Africa to Southeast Asia, China's economic diplomacy carries risks. A case in point is Cambodia, where many believe that China's projects are harming the country, both physically and in the realm of human rights and democracy.
- Hu's on First?
China has greatly stepped up its diplomatic, trade, and aid efforts in Southeast Asia, write Josh Kurlantzick and Devin Stewart. But it still has a lot of hurdles to overcome before it can claim to be a trusted regional leader.
- Innovations in Fighting Corruption
This is a rapporteur's summary from Global Policy Innovations' second Workshop for Ethics and Business. The speakers include representatives from AccountAbility, GE, Lockheed Martin, and the World Bank.
- Ethics of the Brain Drain in the Developing World: The Case of Philippine Health Professionals
Dr. Federico Macaranas uses the exodus of Philippine health professionals as a case study to show the ill effects of the brain drain on poor countries.
- Indonesian Democracy: New Hope
The September 2004 election of Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono gives Theodore Friend reason to be hopeful about the future of Indonesian democracy.
- A Choice for Indigenous Communities in the Philippines
When an indigenous community is determined to protect its natural resources and rights, when a legal framework supports their rights, and when assistance is available from NGOs, effective action can obtain recognition of existing rights and protect local ecosystems.
- Environmental Rights as a Matter of Survival
Ratner points out that, for Cambodia's fishing communities, whose livelihoods depend on access to fishing grounds, human rights and the environment are "related in every way."
- Monitoring Development Projects
Unmonitored development projects can lead to unfettered natural resource exploitation, ignoring the fact that indigenous peoples’ communal lands are the sources of their livelihoods and are crucial to their identities.
- Building Global Solidarity
Ryan discusses how increased global economic integration has led American unions to build stronger links with workers worldwide. While collaboration can be difficult, he shows why the Solidarity Center’s work in Cambodia has been particularly successful.
- Crackdown with a Blessing
Wong reports on the use and abuse of Malaysia’s Internal Security Act and its new-found international support in the post–September 11 world. Raslan, a Malaysian journalist, discusses how the Bali attacks forced him to reconsider his support for rights in these uncertain times.
- The Limits of Human Rights in Vietnam
While human rights are not unheard of in Vietnam, Nguyen Thi Minh Chau and Julie Yoder explain, they are of limited use in addressing the plight of the disabled.
- The Successes and Failures of UN Intervention in East Timor
Magno observes: "Every time you talk about an international tribunal with someone who works for the U.N. in East Timor they say, 'Well, you know, it takes a lot of money, it takes a lot of time . . . .' The people of East Timor say they want justice, [but] the U.N. is reluctant to undertake the task."
- Will There Be a Trial for the Khmer Rouge? [Abstract]
A procedure targeting a few Khmer Rouge leaders seems likely in 2000, but Cambodian government control of the proceedings means that nothing like a truth commission or a wide-ranging inquiry will result.
- Caught in the Claws of the Rich: The Struggle of the Mapalad Farmers
Even with legal knowledge and public support, the law is a double-edged sword: It protects the interests of the poor and implements reforms, but it also preserves the interests of the elite. How can the interests of the poor be advanced if the legal system is caught in the claws of the rich?
- Waiting for Justice in the Marcos Litigation
The jury issued a guilty verdict against Ferdinand Marcos for the human rights crimes of forced disappearance, summary execution, and torture of some 10,000 Filipinos. But the litigation itself demonstrates that human rights law and international jurisdiction need strengthening.
- Housing in the Philippines
Shyama Venkateswar examines the American and Asian perspective on what were some of the barriers to adequate housing for citizens on both sides of the Pacific.
- Assessing Survival Rights: A New Initiative of the Free Legal Assistance Group in the Philippines
Ma. Socorro Diokno believes FLAG’s work is a first step toward the creation of just social structures that could lead to the full realization of the rights of survival, in terms of assessing survival rights.
- Implementing Women's Human Rights in Malaysia
Norani Othman points out the the potential problems and solutions to promoting women's rights in an Islamic society in Malyasia.
- Educating for Human Rights: Asian Challenges and Achievements
Richard Pierre Claude examines the role of education in promoting human rights. He cites that NGOs play a bigger role in Asia because of the lack of intergovernmental organizations that promote human rights education.
- Ethnic Reconciliation and Political Reform Before Justice in Burma
Maran La Raw questions whether the governmental framework proposed by the future transitional government is capable of resolving the ethnic and political problems that have bred division to date.
- Human Rights and the Cambodian Past: In Defense of Peace Before Justice
Kassie Neou and Jeffrey C. Gallup detail how the transitional government has handled the human rights abuses of the past, particularly the Khmer Rouge and its leaders.
- A Reassessment of Peace and Justice in Cambodia
His Excellency Kem Sokha discusses transitional justice, as he focuses on the greatest violator of human rights in Cambodian history: the infamous Khmer Rouge.
- Elusive Promise: Transitional Justice in the Philippines
The Philippine case demonstrates the challenges of transitional justice even in a country where a new democratic government was brought into existence through massive popular support.
- The Role of Cultural Reflection
Relative to globalization and development imperatives, renewed reflection on cultural traditions played a lesser, or not clearly delineated, role as the impetus for emerging rights issues in Thailand.
These works approach human rights violations more theoretically: Why Are We Suing?; Shadows of the Indonesian Communist Party; The World Bank and Human Rights in Indonesia; Towards the Ratification of the Anti-Torture Convention; and The Rights of Prisoners.
- THE PHILIPPINES
Works discussed are A Distant Peace; Philippines: The Killing Goes On; Resistance 3: Torment and Struggle After Marcos; Issues and Concerns of Overseas Filipinos: An Assessment of the Philippine Government's Response; "Philippines 2000" and Human Rights; and Children are People Too: A Guide to the Convention on the Rights of the Child.
Examined are Two Faces: Detention Without Trial; "Why the EIA of the Bakun Project is Invalid;" "Kenapa EIA Projek Hiro Elektrik Bakun Tidak Sah," Power Play: Why the Bakun Hydroelectric Project is Damned; "Baffling Decision: Judge Who Defamed the Judiciary Won't Be Prosecuted;" "Controversy Over Women's Rights: NGO Exposes Maltreatment of Migrants in Malaysian Detention Camps," and "First Steps Towards Preserving Rights."
- What Asians Think About the West's Response to the Human Rights Debate
New-found national pride pits Asian countries against a "decadent West." Constant pressure to observe human rights obligations, often applied with threats of economic sanctions, is regarded by many as a slap in the Asian face, an attempt by the West to hold the East ransom.
- The Task for Asians: To Discover their Own Political Morality for Human Rights
The search for a coherent political morality within the Pacific Rim countries is not a contest between Asians and Westerners, but a soul-searching exercise for Asians themselves: to develop social, political, and philosophical norms that best capture their values.
- Authoritarian Culture and the Struggle for Human Rights in Thailand
A Hindu notion of divine kingship and a feudal absolute monarchy have reinforced authoritarianism as the dominant political culture from ancient to present-day Thai society, clashing with a modern culture of democracy and human rights.
- International Human Rights and Asian Commitment
After the 1993 Bangkok Regional Preparatory Meeting, human rights were no longer dismissed as a tool of foreign oppression but were promoted as a means of asserting Asian distinctiveness from Western-dominated norms of social and political order.
- On Social and Economic Rights
Linking social and economic rights to political rights is essential for human rights to genuinely fulfill the holistic vision of the UDHR, but only western Europe has been able to realize the delicate balance of socialism, capitalism, and democracy.
- Refocusing the Human Rights Debate in East Asia: A Review of Recent Writings
The Bangkok Declaration on Human Rights marked a standoff between human rights advocates and East Asian governments, underscoring the need to improve human rights discourse between East and West. These writings were distributed to participants preparing for this workshop.
- The Language of Human Rights in East Asia
Human rights are widely advocated for their instrumental worth, but this strategy may change. Political and civil rights may eventually be championed for their own worth after a certain amount of material well-being has been achieved.
- Human Rights in the Post-Cold War Era: The cases of North Korea, China, and Burma
With continuing human rights violations and protests against mostly Western governments accused of meddling in other country's internal affairs, international debate suggests that while human rights may have agreed upon in form, they have not been accepted in substance.
- What Can and Should the International Community Do to Promote Human Rights?
In opening a discussion of human rights, countries must consider cultural and security contexts. The key to an effective human rights policy is to distinguish between punitive approaches and constructive measures: a punitive approach isolates; a constructive approach includes.
- Refining Definitions of Human Rights
There is agreement in the West that human rights are absolute, but diverse opinion about the place of human rights in foreign affairs. What is the best path toward improving human rights? How does political liberalization affect economic development?
- "Do Not Forget Us!"
Activist Bayard Rustin reports on meeting Indochinese refugees in Thai camps, who fled their countries in fear of their lives. He exhorts America to open its doors and makes a special appeal to his fellow African-Americans, declaring: "Black people must recognize these people for what they are: brothers and sisters, not enemies and competitors."
- On the Moral Implications of Torture and Exemplary Assassination
First published in May 1970 during the Vietnam War, this WORLDVIEW magazine article is just as relevant today.
- Mission to Hanoi, 1968
In February 1968, peace activist Father Daniel Berrigan and historian Howard Zinn flew to Hanoi to obtain the release of three American prisoners of war. Here are Berrigan's notes from that historic trip. "The mission is calculated to outrage some on both sides," he writes.