- Russian Soft Power in France, with Marlene Laruelle & Jean-Yves Camus
It's important to understand that Russia and France have had a centuries-long relationship which is mostly positive, say French scholars Marlene Laruelle and Jean-Yves Camus. Today there are layers of close economic and cultural ties, as well as common geopolitical interests, and the French extreme right and Russia share many of the same conservative values. Thus the remarkable strength of Russian influence in France is not surprising.
- Living Legacy of WWI: Counterterrorism Strategies in the War's Aftermath, with Mary Barton
"It is important to look at terrorism from a historical perspective, to understand where the term came from and to not see it as being tied to any one group for any specific cause," says Mary Barton, a contract historian with the Office of the Secretary of Defense Historical Office, "because left-wing groups have used terrorist tactics; right-wing groups have used terrorist tactics; different religious extremists have used terrorist tactics,"
- Democracy Promotion in the Age of Trump
In this panel Adrian Basora makes a strong case for democracy as not only promoting American values but also serving U.S. interests, while Maia Otarashvili gives a frightening overview of the rise of "illiberal values" (Viktor Orbán's phrase) in the Eurasia region. Basora and Otarashvili are co-editors of "Does Democracy Matter? The United States and Global Democracy Support" and Nikolas Gvosdev is one of the contributors.
- The French Far Right in Russia's Orbit
"Far-right groups in France are not restricted to the party of the Le Pen family. They are diverse, operate through networks, and are now well within Russia's force field. But this is not only the result of Vladimir Putin's charisma or Marine Le Pen's need for funds. The Russian question has drawn French nationalist activists into combat, both at the rhetorical level...and at the level of armed combat."
- From Cold War to Hot Peace: An American Ambassador in Putin's Russia, with Michael McFaul
As Obama's adviser on Russian affairs, Michael McFaul helped craft the United States' policy known as "reset" that fostered new and unprecedented collaboration between the two countries. Then, as U.S. ambassador to Russia from 2012-2014, he had a front-row seat when this fleeting moment crumbled with Vladimir Putin's return to the presidency. "It's tragic," he says. "How is it that we have come back to something close to the Cold War?"
- Army of None: Autonomous Weapons and the Future of War, with Paul Scharre
"What happens when a predator drone has as much as autonomy as a self-driving car, moving to something that is able to do all of the combat functions all by itself, that it can go out, find the enemy, and attack the enemy without asking for permission?" asks military and technology expert Paul Scharre. The technology's not there yet, but it will be very soon, raising a host of ethical, legal, military, and security challenges.
- The Peacemakers: Leadership Lessons from Twentieth-Century Statesmanship, with Bruce Jentleson
What are the qualities and conditions that enable people to become successful peacemakers? At a time when peace seems elusive and conflict endemic, Bruce Jentleson makes a forceful and inspiring case for the continued relevance of statesmanship and diplomacy and provides practical guidance to 21st-century leaders seeking lessons from some of history's most accomplished negotiators, activists, and trailblazers.
- What do Americans (Republican Voters) Actually Think?
We hear all sorts of assumptions as to what American voters—and now specifically Republican voters who may or may not serve as the basis for President Trump's support—think and believe about U.S. foreign policy. Do they have affection for Putin and Russia? Are they skeptical of free trade?
- On Grand Strategy, with John Lewis Gaddis
Are there such things as timeless principles of grand strategy? If so, are they always the same across epochs and cultures? What can we learn from reading the classics, such as Thucydides, Sun Tzu, and Clausewitz? "The fox knows many things, but the hedgehog knows one big thing," according to Isaiah Berlin. Which type makes better strategists, or do you need to be a bit of both? John Lewis Gaddis has some wise and thoughtful answers.
- The United Nations, Human Rights, and American Disengagement
A new "Foreign Policy" article says that as the United States has disengaged from the United Nations, Russia and China have moved to fill the vacuum. But they are not seeking to dismantle the liberal order--a theme discussed and debated in the current issue of "Ethics & International Affairs"--but reshape it more to their liking and preferences.
- European Futures in the Shadow of American Disengagement, with Andrew Michta
Europe is going through deep structural changes, says Andrew Michta of the George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies. He argues that it may become "a "Europe of clusters," where countries even within the EU will align themselves differently depending on their economic or security interests. In any case, these shifts are largely driven by internal factors such as the migration crisis, not by U.S. policy towards Europe.
- The Return of Marco Polo's World, with Robert D. Kaplan
If you wish to understand the depth and breadth of the geographical, historical, technological, and political forces that are shaping our world, there is no better guide than Robert Kaplan. Using Marco Polo's journey as "a geographical framing device for Eurasia today," he examines China's ambitious One Belt One Road project, dissecting China's imperial dream and its multiple, under-reported objectives.
- The Lost History of Prosecuting Axis War Crimes, with Dan Plesch
Before Nuremberg--indeed, long before the end of the war--there was the United Nations War Crimes Commission, a little-known agency which assisted national governments in putting on trial thousands of Axis war criminals in Europe and Asia. Why do we know so little about it? "With the onset of the Cold War and the repression of civil rights in America, this whole Commission was shut down," says Dan Plesch. Learn more about this buried history.
- Ethics & International Affairs Volume 32.1 (Spring 2018)
The heart of this Special Issue is a roundtable on the theme of "Rising Powers and the International Order," with contributions from G. John Ikenberry, Shiping Tang, Anne L. Clunan, Deepa M. Ollapally, Ole Wæver, and Andrew Hurrell. Each essay in the collection examines the future of the global order from the perspective of one or more major rising powers, as well as the EU and the United States. The issue also contains an essay on golden visas and the marketization of citizenship by Ayelet Shachar; a review essay on eliminating corruption by Gillian Brock; and book reviews from Kevin Macnish, Colleen Murphy, Brigit Toebes, and Steven Vanderheiden.
- Just Out: "Ethics & International Affairs" Spring 2018 Issue
The heart of this Special Issue is a roundtable on the theme of "Rising Powers and the International Order." Each essay in the collection examines the future of the global order from the perspective of one or more major rising powers, as well as the EU and the United States.
- On Tyranny: Twenty Lessons from the Twentieth Century, with Timothy Snyder
Can tyranny happen here? asks historian Timothy Snyder. His chilling answer is, "it can happen, it happens to people like us, and it is happening now." How can we fight back? Snyder offers 20 lessons; the first is the most important, as if we fail in this one it will be too late for the others: "Don't obey in advance. Most of the power of authoritarianism is freely given." Have the courage to take a stand--easy to say, but difficult to do.
- Does Fake News Matter? with Brendan Nyhan
What are the real facts about fake news? Brendan Nyhan is co-author of an important new study on fake news consumption during the 2016 U.S. presidential campaign. He discovered that a staggering one in four Americans visited a fake news site in the month before the election. But what was the actual agenda for most of these sites and what effect did they have on voters? His findings may surprise you.
- To Fight Against This Age: On Fascism and Humanism, with Rob Riemen
No more euphemisms and denials, says Rob Riemen in this frightening and inspiring talk. Call it by its name: fascism. Neither technology, nor economic growth, nor political activism can fix this, he continues. We must create a new counterculture that replaces kitsch and conformism with truth, empathy, beauty, and justice.
- The Ukrainian Night: An Intimate History of Revolution, with Marci Shore
"'Likes' don't count," was the rallying cry that first brought people to the Maidan. In this remarkable conversation, Marci Shore explores what it means "to experience revolution in your own skin": the human transformation, blurring of time, and destroying of boundaries during this "extraordinary coming together of men, of women, of young people, of old people, of Jews, of Armenians, of Russian speakers, of Ukrainian speakers."
- Top Risks and Ethical Decisions 2018 with Eurasia Group's Ian Bremmer
Probably the most dangerous geopolitical environment in decades-China, AI, Trump, end of Pax Americana--yes, it's very bad. But all these challenges energize political scientist Ian Bremmer to do his best work! Don't miss this great talk.
- Deciphering the Middle East and Trump's National Security Stategy, with Asha Castleberry
Asha Castleberry, Fordham professor and U.S. Army veteran, describes her "mixed reaction" to Trump's National Security Strategy--touching on China and Russia, cybersecurity, and climate change--and what effect it will actually have on the military's operations. Plus, she details an increasingly complicated Middle East, with the Saudi crown prince on a warpath and a dangerous transitional period in Syria and Iraq after major victories against ISIS.
- Russian Soft Power in France: Assessing Moscow's Cultural and Business Para-diplomacy
Don't miss this fascinating account that maps Russian soft power in France by looking at networks that are not directly state-produced: diaspora organizations, those linked to business, the major Orthodox foundations, the Russian Orthodox Church, and the think tanks and media realms.
- Trump's National Security Strategy, with Julianne Smith
"I would say most of the people I have talked to outside of government, including some people in Congress, have been a little taken aback," says Julie Smith, senior fellow at Center for a New American Security. "A lot of people have been left scratching their heads because a lot of what appears in the strategy has actually been contradicted by the president himself in one or another of his tweet storms."
- Slowing the Proliferation of Major Conventional Weapons with Jonathan D. Caverley
Although today's hot topic is nuclear proliferation, let's not forget that wars like Syria are being fought with conventional ones, such as aircraft and artillery. Jonathan Caverley has an intriguing and practical proposal to slow down the spread of these deadly weapons.
- Fractured Continent: Europe's Crises and the Fate of the West, with William Drozdiak
In some ways Europe is more fragmented than at any time in the last three decades, says Drozdiak. There's a north/south split between wealthy creditor nations and deeply indebted ones; an east/west divide, as Poland and Hungary revert to nationalism; pressures of regional separatism; Brexit; and the migrant crisis. Then there's Trump, who sees Europe as a burden and economic rival. 2018 could be a pivotal year. What will happen?
- Banning Nuclear Weapons with 2017 Nobel Peace Prize Winner ICAN
Did you know that 122 countries have adopted a treaty to ban nuclear weapons? The organization behind this movement is the International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (ICAN). In this spirited and informative discussion, Ray Acheson and Beatrice Fihn of ICAN take apart the nuclear deterrence myth, expecially in the case of North Korea, and the belief that nukes are "special" and therefore exempt from the ban on targeting civilians.
- Marlene Laruelle on Europe's Far-Right Political Movements
What has led to the rise of far-right parties across Europe and how have they evolved over time? Is immigration really the main issue, or is there a more complex set of problems that vary from nation to nation? What are the ideological and practical connections between the far right and Russia? Carnegie Council Senior Fellow Marlene Laruelle is an expert on Europe, Russia, Eurasia, and Europe's far right. Don't miss her analysis.
- Over 60 Organizations in 30+ Countries Celebrate Global Ethics Day, 2017
October 18, 2017 marked the fourth annual Global Ethics Day, with participation from over 60 organizations and individuals from 31 countries on five continents. Founded by Carnegie Council in 2014 to celebrate its centennial, Global Ethics Day is a global teach-in, an opportunity for institutions to explore the role of ethics in a globalized world. From the Gambia to Nicaragua to Romania, everyone celebrated in their own way.
- Plutopia: Nuclear Families in Atomic Cities, with Kate Brown
Chernobyl is considered the greatest nuclear disaster of all time. But over decades America's Hanford plant and Russia's Mayak plant each issued almost four times the amount of radiation as Chernobyl. Historian Kate Brown explains that in the closed atomic cities serving these plutonium plants, "residents gave up their civil and biological rights for consumer rights." How does today's America mirror these segregated plutopias?
- Fake News and Google with Daniel Sieberg
How much of a threat is fake news to the average citizen? What is Google doing to counteract its spread? Learn more with this conversation with Daniel Sieberg, co-founder of Google News Lab. Launched about three years ago, the News Lab is a small team of Google employees who collaborate with journalists and entrepreneurs around the world to use technology to strengthen digital storytelling and produce more in-depth reporting.
- Russian Media and Politics from Soviet Times to Putin, with Jonathan Sanders
Jonathan Sanders lived in Russia for a total of roughly 20 years, both as an academic researcher and as a journalist for CBS News, and has an insider's perspective on Russia and its people. He discusses the contradictions of Russian media under Putin--the "mass, crass" state-controlled media and the dissident material and rambunctious memes on RuTube--and shares personal stories of his connections with Yeltsin, Putin, and more.
- An Uncertain Ally: Turkey Under Erdoğan's Dictatorship with David L. Phillips
"We need to face the fact that Turkey under Erdoğan has become a rogue regime," declares David L. Phillips. It's a corrupt, repressive, Islamist dictatorship. The U.S. should no longer regard it as an ally, but as a strategic adversary.
- Scott D. Sagan on the Nuclear Necessity Principle
Major changes must be made if U.S. nuclear war plans are to conform to the principles of just war doctrine and the law of armed conflict, declares Stanford University's Scott Sagan. He proposes a new doctrine: "the nuclear necessity principle." In sum, the U.S. will not use nuclear weapons against any target that could be reliably destroyed by conventional means.
- Democracy and its Discontents: Resources from Carnegie Council
Carnegie Council presents a collection of recent talks and interviews on the workings of democracy; the decline of the liberal order and the rise of populism; illiberal and partial democracies; and new threats to democracy in this digital age.
- Alexander Klimburg on "The Darkening Web: The War for Cyberspace"
In the West we view cyber threats as largely a technical issue, while in Russia and China they see it in terms of propaganda, information control, and influencing their domestic affairs, says Alex Klimburg. When we confuse these two narratives, we risk missing other nations' key strategies to push the Internet in unwanted directions. Indeed, almost without realizing it, we are contributing to something approaching an arms race in cyber.
- Graham Allison on "Destined for War: Can America and China Escape Thucydides’s Trap?"
Thucydides's Trap is the dangerous dynamic that occurs when a rising power threatens to displace a ruling power, explains Harvard's Graham Allison. So is war between China and the United States inevitable? No, says Allison, but both nations will have to make "painful adaptations and adjustments" to avoid it, starting with U.S. policy adjustments regarding the South China Sea and the Korean Peninsula.
- Sea Power: The History and Geopolitics of the World's Oceans
"Oceans dominate the world," says Admiral Stavridis. After all, 70 percent of the globe is covered by water. In this masterly overview of the seven seas, he touches on the maritime battles that changed history; current geopolitics from the South China Sea to the Mediterranean; and the fact that environmentally, the oceans are "the largest crime scene in the world."
- Miranda Lupion's Presentation on the Weaponization of Digital Russian-Language News Wins Council's Student Research Conference
Ms. Lupion's presentation was titled "The Grey War of Our Time: Information Warfare and the Kremlin's Weaponization of Digital Russian-Language News." Other presentation topics included humanitarian intervention, youth exclusion, information warfare, cyber security, refugee resettlement, and the national memory of slavery.
- The Grey War of Our Time: Information Warfare and the Kremlin's Weaponization of Digital Russian-Language News
"I argue that from 2008 to 2014, Moscow improved its ability to capitalize on the benefits of digital news—namely the unlimited publication space of digital media—to increase the thematic reach and persuasiveness of its coverage," writes Miranda Lupion in this follow-up interview about her winning presentation for the Council's Research Conference.
- Easternization: Asia's Rise and America's Decline from Obama to Trump and Beyond
"Financial Times" chief foreign affairs commentator Gideon Rachman says, "We've reached the point where the West's grip on world affairs begins to loosen." China's economic rise is, indeed, a big reason for this shift, but how do Brexit, Crimea, and "red lines" fit into the story? What will be the effect on Southeast Asia, Australia, and Africa?
- Orville Schell on China's Role in the World
Orville Schell has been reporting on China since 1970. In this wide-ranging and insightful conversation he looks at China and the U.S. exit from TPP; North Korea; the South China Sea; China's values system (or lack of one); human rights; climate change; and more.
- Breaking Barriers: The Air Force and the Future of Cyberpower
The Air Force is heading America's efforts to modernize and secure its digital infrastructure and incorporate cyberspace into every aspect of its operations. Learn more in this talk with Lt. Gen. Bender, the Air Force's chief information officer and the leader of nearly 55,000 cyber operators.
- Pankaj Mishra on our "Age of Anger"
"I think the reason why so many people feel angry and disaffected is that too much has been promised to them in recent decades and the globalized economy has not delivered to large numbers of people on these promises," says Pankaj Mishra, in this discussion about his very timely book, "Age of Anger: A History of the Present."
- A World in Disarray: American Foreign Policy and the Crisis of the Old Order
Concerned about where the world is heading? Don't miss this measured and comprehensive overview from Richard Haas, in which he lays out the global situation facing President Trump and what may lie ahead. Topics include the Middle East, Europe, Asia, Russia, NATO, the UN, and the main factor behind job losses.
- Alexander Görlach on Threats to Liberal Democracy
In this wide-ranging and lively discussion, Alexander Görlach, founder of the debate magazine "The European," tackles the rise of populism and the far right in Europe, Brexit, the results of the U.S. election, the refugee crisis, and more.
- The Populist Explosion: How the Great Recession Transformed American and European Politics
How exactly should we define populism? What led to its current resurgence in Europe and the United States, on both the right and the left? And in particular, how can we explain the Trump phenomenon? For answers, don't miss this fascinating discussion with author and journalist John Judis.
- Carnegie Council and the New Administration
Other organizations will no doubt focus on analyses of leadership style, rhetoric, and political conflict. At Carnegie Council, we will focus on the ethical principles at stake in the actual policies of the new administration--specifically its foreign policy. We are following three policy areas closely: alliances, climate, and free speech.
- Europe's Last Chance: Why the European States Must Form a More Perfect Union
To avoid disaster, the EU needs to become a real federation, argues Guy Verhofstadt. "That means a small, real European government controlled by two bodies, a parliament representing the citizens and a senate representing the Member States, with a real budget, with a defense union--with everything that is needed to make the Union more effective."
- Top Risks and Ethical Decisions 2017
The world is entering a geopolitical recession, i.e. an unwinding of the old global order, says political scientist Ian Bremmer, in his grimmest forecast ever. Topics include the potential challenges from a Trump administration, President Obama's legacy of a more fractured world, human rights in the Middle East, and the fate of liberalism.
- Top 10 Carnegie Council Resources, 2016
In a year that will be remembered as era-defining, Carnegie Council's most popular 2016 podcasts and web resources focused on Asia, Russia, human rights, technology, and the fight against terrorism. Check out this varied list, which gives you an idea of the scope of the Council's work.
- Donald Trump. . . . . Commander-in-Chief
Donald Trump is now president-elect. Despite the bitter opposition that occurred throughout the campaign, all Americans should want him to be successful. This is particularly true for his most important role as commander-in-chief, as he must deal with a variety of significant threats.
- Instagram Take-Over #12: Eastern Ukraine Series by Jack Losh
For its 12th Instagram take-over by photographers from around the world, Carnegie Council presents photos of Eastern Ukraine by British freelance journalist Jack Losh, from the front line to everyday life.
- What is Populism?
There's a wave of populist leaders around the world right now, from Erdoğan to Trump. What defines a populist exactly, and why are they so dangerous? Learn more in this most timely interview.
- Major Security Challenges for the Next President
Afghanistan, terrorism, U.S.-Russia relations: Col. McCausland gives an expert analysis of all these security challenges and more. Yet he concludes on a hopeful note: "We need to remember that we are a great country. There are a lot of reasons to be optimistic. We endured in the past and by golly, we're going to endure in the future."
- Free Speech: Ten Principles for a Connected World
In today's connected world--a "cosmopolis" dominated by the "four superpowers" Google, Apple, Facebook, and Amazon--what we need is to have more but also better free speech, declares Garton Ash. The West, particularly the U.S., should strive to promote global free speech, and we must foster a "robust civility" despite our differences.
- Robert Kaplan on the Underlying Forces that Drive our "Post-Modern" World
"To understand the events of the next 50 years, then, one must understand environmental scarcity, cultural and racial clash, geographic destiny, and the transformation of war." Robert Kaplan wrote these prescient words back in 1994. In this fascinating discussion, he analyses how his predictions are playing out and where we are headed.
- Update from Ukraine
Dr. Petro discusses the violence in Crimea, and Ukraine's economic and political stalemate. For long-term stability, Ukraine has to reconcile with Russia, he says. "There's simply no way that Ukraine can prosper with a perpetual enemy on its borders."
- Foreign Affairs & U.S. History Materials, Curated for High School Teachers by a Teacher
The new Worksheets & Excerpts section of Carnegie Council's online educational resources includes material useful for comparative government, world history, and U.S. history courses, and is specially designed for high school teachers.
- Top 10 Podcasts for the 2015-16 Carnegie Council Program Year
Topics for the top 10 podcasts span the globe, and include Chinese immigrants in New York, India's Constitution, U.S-Russian relations, the future of technology, the teachings of Buddha, and the intricacies of global tax avoidance. Quite a varied collection!
- A World History of Political Violence
Rachel Kleinfeld discusses with Devin Stewart her research--which took her to five continents over the past three years--and forthcoming book on how violence is perpetuated and curtailed in societies around the world. Kleinfeld discusses the role of political power, corruption, law enforcement, leadership, and grassroots movements.
- The July NATO Warsaw Summit: How Will NATO Adapt to a New Security Environment?
Today NATO must protect itself from Russian threats on its Eastern borders and ISIS to the South, plus terrorism and cyber attacks, while also managing the flow of migration and patrolling the seas. Therefore the upcoming NATO summit in Warsaw is of paramount importance.
- The Invention of Russia: The Journey from Gorbachev's Freedom to Putin's War
When the Soviet Union fell 25 years ago, Gorbachev spoke of "living in a new world" where Russia would no longer interfere in other countries' affairs. What happened? In this riveting talk, Russia expert Arkady Ostrovsky analyzes the powerful role of the media, noting that Putin did an extraordinary thing: "he merged security services with the media."
- Ukraine Update
David Speedie discusses with Dr. Nicolai Petro the situation in Ukraine--political, economic, and the growing civil conflict between East and West--two years into the Poroshenko presidency.
- Return to Cold War
Columbia's Robert Legvold argues that the United States and Russia are, indeed, in a new Cold War with plenty of blame for both sides. And despite its economic and military decline, he says that Russia is still the most important nation when it comes to U.S. foreign policy. Can the two states find a way forward?
- The Symbiotic Relationship between Western Media and Terrorism
Mass media and terrorism have become ever more intertwined in a mutually beneficial relationship often described as 'symbiotic.' This column examines that dynamic and outlines the need for news organizations to balance the public's right to know against the ability of militants to exploit news coverage to promote their beliefs.
- Chuck Hagel on U.S. Challenges in Today's "Complicated, Interconnected World"
Drawing on decades of experience, Secretary Hagel gives a masterly and frank analysis of world events. He discusses current U.S. politics--he's confident that the Constitution will see America through--the nuclear deal with Iran, the melting in the Arctic and resulting "Great Game of the North," China's power play in the South China Sea, and much more.
- The Fifth Annual Moscow Conference on International Security
David Speedie attended this important three-day conference and reports that "a global array of speakers articulated a corresponding range of country/area-specific concerns, much of which was familiar but nevertheless important to hear." There were more than 600 official delegates from 83 countries--the most notable absentees being the U.S. and the UK.
- Eurasianism and the European Far Right: Book Launch and Update on Events in Europe
"Eurasianism and the European Far Right" is the culmination of an intensive two-year project spearheaded by the Council's U.S. Global Engagement Program. This expert panel from France, Hungary, and the United States examines the complex spectrum of the European far right and its connections with Russia and with the U.S.
- "Conflict in Ukraine: The Unwinding of the Post–Cold War International Order" by Rajan Menon and Eugene Rumer
Rajan Menon and Eugene Rumer try to make sense of the Ukraine crisis for a general audience. The book's major contribution lies in its attempt to provide what the authors term a "first cut at explaining the context, causes, and consequences" of a crisis that is still very much underway.
- Table of Contents, Volume 30.1 (Spring 2016)
This issue includes an essay by Amitai Etzioni on how to define national sovereignty through rights and responsibilities; a roundtable on the relationship between Hans Morgenthau and America, with contributions by Cornelia Navari, Felix Rösch, Hartmut Behr, Christoph Frei, Richard Ned Lebow, and Douglas B. Klusmeyer; features by Patti Tamara Lenard on revocation of citizenship in democracies and by Robert Sparrow on the case against autonomous weapons; a response by Helen Frowe to Daniel Brunstetter and Megan Braun's article on "jus ad vim" (EIA 27.1), with a rejoinder by Daniel Brunstetter; and book reviews by Robert Howse and Jeffrey Mankoff.
- Free for a Limited Time! "Ethics & International Affairs" Spring 2016 Issue
This issue includes: Amitai Etzioni on national sovereignty; a roundtable on the relationship between Hans Morgenthau and America; Patti Tamara Lenard on revocation of citizenship in democracies; Robert Sparrow on the case against autonomous weapons; an exchange between Helen Frowe and Daniel Brunstetter on "jus ad vim;" and book reviews.
- The Industries of the Future
Driverless cars, designer babies, crypto currencies, cyber warfare, pervasive "sousveillance" that erodes our privacy, often with our consent--what are the upsides and downsides of this brave new world? Alec Ross, who is neither a utopian nor a dystopian, expertly guides us through it.
- Update on Ukraine
David Speedie discusses the situation in Ukraine with Nicolai Petro, including the political crisis for the governing party in Kiev, the situation in Eastern Ukraine, and the state of the Minsk accords.
- Beyond a New Cold War? International Security and the Need for U.S.-Russia Cooperation
The United States must stop its demonization of President Putin, according to members of this distinguished panel, all with long associations with Russia and all founding members of the American Committee for East-West Accord. Syria, Ukraine, the UN, nuclear weapons: compelling reasons why the United States and Russia must work together.
- What Went Wrong in the Arab Spring?
In the early days of the Arab Spring, non-violent civil resistance helped topple authoritarian governments in Tunisia, Egypt, and Yemen. Yet these apparent triumphs were followed by disasters. What went wrong? Was the problem rooted in the popular movements themselves, or in their societies? And what's the best way forward now?
- In Europe's Shadow: Two Cold Wars and a Thirty-Year Journey Through Romania and Beyond
"What is Europe? Where is it going in this current crisis?" The answers are all here, from what Kaplan describes as the redivision of Europe into two Cold War halves over Russia's involvement in Ukraine, to the enduring importance of historical imperial borders, to Europe's urgent need for structural economic reform--and much more.
- The Unprecedented Jihadi Threat in Europe
"At this very moment, ISIS is recruiting probably 100 people a week from all over the world, including this very country. So it is not a European problem, it is not an Arab issue; it is a global threat and global challenge. That is why I insist on the fact that the threat has to be dealt with at the source, which is basically Syria."
- Competing Moral Claims over the Nuclear Power-Weapons Crossover
"Although the military–industry complex remains resilient, the only ultimate solution to nuclear danger and the best disaster prevention is a nuclear-free world in both military and civil terms."
- Carnegie Council Senior Fellow David Speedie is Founding Member of The American Committee for East-West Accord
The Council is pleased to announce that David C. Speedie is a founding member of The American Committee for East-West Accord, an organization whose fundamental premise is that no real or lasting American, European, or international security generally is possible without essential kinds of stable cooperation with Russia.
- Winter is Coming: Why Vladimir Putin and the Enemies of the Free World Must be Stopped
Garry Kasparov is an outspoken critic of Vladimir Putin's authoritarianism, but he is equally critical of the United States and its allies for their unwillingness to confront Moscow. In this fascinating discussion, he and journalist Robert Kaiser grapple with complex and difficult questions about Russia and the "free world," and what we mean by a moral foreign policy.
- Top 10 Carnegie Council Resources for 2015
Russia, human rights, energy, business ethics—these were among the most popular topics our varied audiences accessed this year. Check out the most popular podcasts and web resources from 2015.
- The State of the European Union: Challenges for the Future
Yes, says former EU Commission president José Manuel Barroso, the European Union is facing extraordinary challenges. But the EU also possesses extraordinary resilience and resources. Unlike many, Barroso is very optimistic about its future.
- Afghanistan and Pakistan: The Re-emergence of the Taliban and the Arrival of ISIS
Ahmed Rashid and Barnett Rubin dissect the complicated situation in Afghanistan and Pakistan--a region of many competing terrorist groups--and also comment on ISIS in the Middle East and Europe. ISIS is actually a war within Islam, declares Rashid, and the West's main task should be to help mobilize and unite the Muslim world to fight it.
- The Putin Worldview, Russia in Syria, and the Ukraine Elections
Professor Nicolai Petro was one of a few American experts to attend the Valdai Discussion Club, an annual conference in Moscow on Russia's foreign policy attended by President Vladimir Putin. Here, Petro discusses Putin's worldview and the Russian military intervention in Syria and analyzes the recent elections in Ukraine.
- ISIS: Inside the Army of Terror
ISIS is often portrayed as a mysterious force that came out of nowhere. It's nothing of the kind. This grim, unforgettable talk gives us the full, terrifying story, from the initial mistakes made in Iraq to the carnage going on now in Syria. (The TV show made from this talk won a Telly award.)
- Russia's Intervention and the Fight against ISIL with U.S. Army Veteran Asha Castleberry
The good news is that ISIL has lost one-third of the key areas that it took over, both in Iraq and Syria, says Castleberry. But the Russian intervention in Syria has complicated things; she explains just how.
- Messrs. Obama and Putin: Put Syria and Syrians First
While the U.S. and Russia disagree over the fate of Assad, they share a self-interested resolve to defeat the ISIL forces that now control large swathes of eastern Syria. It is frustrating to look on as the two leaders snipe at each other over how to accomplish this--rather like two Neros fiddling while Rome, or in this case Damascus, burns.
- NATO in the 21st Century: Addressing New and Urgent Challenges
NATO is now in its third historical phase, says U.S. Ambassador to NATO Douglas Lute in this informative, useful talk. "There is now a sense that NATO faces maybe not just one threat, a newly aggressive, newly assertive Russia, but also concerns from the Southeast with ISIS and potentially from instability in the South across the Mediterranean as well."
- Carnegie Council Announces the Publication of "Eurasianism and the European Far Right: Reshaping the Europe–Russia Relationship"
Carnegie Council is pleased to announce the publication of Eurasianism and the European Far Right, which marks the culmination of an intensive, two-year project spearheaded by the Council's U.S. Global Engagement Program (USGE).
- Russia's Soft Power: A Matter for Church and State
If other countries wish to understand Russia, they need to have a grasp of her values, which provide the moral framework for her policies and world view. In this fascinating discussion, three leading experts on Russia's "soft power" explain the roles of the state and the Russian Orthodox Church and their complex interplay in formulating this framework.
- Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action on Iran: Assessment and Prospects
Professor Gary Sick, Iran expert at Columbia University and lead White House negotiator during the 1979 Iran hostage crisis, assesses the merits of the recently negotiated agreement on Iran's nuclear program and the prospects for the upcoming vote in Congress.
- Bringing Ukraine Back Into Focus: How to End the New Cold War and Provide Effective Political Assistance to Ukraine
Peacemaking efforts in Ukraine have failed because two crises must be addressed simultaneously. The first is the crisis within Ukraine over whether it should be a monocultural or bicultural nation. The second is the crisis in Russian relations with the West. The key is viewing Russia as part of the solution, rather than as the problem.
- Seventy Years after Hiroshima: Nuclear Weapons, 2015
Seventy years after the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, nuclear weapons remain one of the greatest dangers we face. What is the situation today, given that the world has an estimated 15,700 nuclear weapons? Carnegie Council presents a selection of resources on this crucial topic.
- "Soft Power": The Values that Shape Russian Foreign Policy
In the increasingly frigid environment of U.S.-Russia relations, much attention is given to what may be seen as Russia's strategic "interests." Of at least equal significance for understanding Russian attitudes, however, is a grasp of the values, the moral framework for Russia's foreign policy.
- Ukraine and the Future of Reforms
In May 2015, a time of crisis not only for Ukraine but also for the future of the entire EU, Cloud and Gvosdev went to Lithuania, Poland, Germany, and Belgium and had frank discussions on Ukraine with former and current government officials and think-tank representatives, and with EU officials in Brussels. Here are their findings.
- Eighteen Months On: Post-Maidan Ukraine
Professor Nicolai Petro was a Fulbright scholar in Odessa, southern Ukraine, for a year in the aftermath of the Maidan revolution. In Odessa once again, he offers his impressions of the economic, political, and security situations in Ukraine today.
- U.S.-Russia Relations: Critical and Unstable
"What was a troubled relationship is now on life support, and the deterioration has taken place in the most existentially perilous area of arms control, specifically nuclear weapons," says David Speedie. How can the United States and Russia move from "zero-sum" to "constructive engagement"?
- Ethical Leadership: A Conversation with Chuck Hagel
The one constant in Chuck Hagel's varied and pressure-filled career has been ethical leadership. How have his experiences--in war, the boardroom, Congress, and as secretary of defense--shaped his leadership style?
- From Nuclear Deterrence to Disarmament: Evolving Catholic Perspectives
In this timely and important discussion on nuclear weapons, Des Browne provides the broader policy context; Archbishop Auza presents the Holy See's position over the last 70 years; Father Hehir connects the policy debate and the moral debate; and Professor Love connects the nuclear debate to the wider debate about peacebuilding.
- Ethics in U.S. Foreign Policy: Spymaster Jack Devine on the CIA
"The thing that attracted me to the Agency was a sense of mission," says 32-year CIA veteran Jack Devine. In this discussion he talks candidly about Allende's fall, Iraq, Iran, Edward Snowden, torture, drones, and more. And when asked if he were young would he join today's post-9/11 CIA, he replies without hesitation: "You betcha!"
- Teaching About Intractable Conflicts: The Olive Tree Initiative
How can students learn to think more critically about conflicted regions and to engage people with different views in constructive dialogue? The Olive Tree Initiative combines a short study trip to a conflicted region, rigorous study both pre- and post-trip, and close mentorship that focuses on leadership development.
- How to get from Soviet Studies to Russian Studies
The end of major government funding for Russian studies offers a chance to start studying Russia properly, argues Nicolai Petro, and that's something which is sorely needed.
- Blueprint for Revolution: How to Use Rice Pudding, Lego Men, and Other Nonviolent Techniques to Galvanize Communities, Overthrow Dictators, or Simply Change the World
In the late 1990s, using humor, irony, and imagination, Popovic and his friends toppled Serbian dictator Milošević. They went on to found CANVAS, which now advises activists in more than 15 countries. Popovic explains that nonviolent struggle is a teachable skill, and that nonviolence is not only the most ethical, but the most successful path to revolution.
- American Energy Challenges and Global Leadership in the Years Ahead
Thanks to new technologies for extracting oil and natural gas, such as hydraulic fracturing ("fracking"), the United States is now the biggest producer of energy in the world. What do plummeting energy prices mean for sellers and consumers around the world--and what will be the likely consequences for climate change?
- Russia's Orthodox Soft Power
Russia's values are often overlooked, or treated simplistically as the antithesis of Western values. We should understand that the close relationship between the Orthodox Church and the state provides Russia's foreign policy with a definable moral framework, one that given its popularity, is likely to continue to shape policies well into the future.
- The United States, Russia, and Ukraine: Report from Moscow
Dmitri Trenin, director of Carnegie Endowment's Moscow Center, served in the Soviet and Russian military for two decades and understands both the Russian and U.S. points of view. He warns that U.S.-Russia relations are heading for a new version of the Cold War, and also discusses the Russian economy and its relations with China and other countries.
- The Nemtsov Tragedy, and the Blame Game
Since Boris Nemtsov's murder in Moscow on February 27, we have been regaled by a range of ill-informed conspiracy theories, writes David Speedie. Yet Putin would have almost nothing to gain, and something to lose, from Nemtsov's fate. Speedie argues that there is another theory that is as chilling as it is plausible.
- Then and Now: Eight Lingering Questions on U.S.-Russia-Ukraine
In March 2014, David Speedie posed eight questions on the Ukraine crisis. With an ongoing civil war in Ukraine some 15 months after the Maidan rebellion and overthrow of Ukraine's elected president, it seems time for eight new questions reflective of the ongoing crisis, and of the consequent relentless downward spiral in U.S.-Russia relations.
- Ukraine: The New Cuban Missile Crisis?
"There can be no military solution to the war in Ukraine, only a political one," says Carnegie Council Global Ethics Fellow Rajan Menon, co-author of "Conflict in Ukraine: The Unwinding of the Post-Cold War Order." "And sending arms to Ukraine to gain political leverage against Russia will set back prospects for a solution."
- Flashpoints: The Emerging Crisis in Europe
"Europe has always been a place of conflict and malice and anger and hatred, between classes and between nations. The question now is, can it be contained? I doubt it very much. The period from 1992 to 2008 was an interregnum, and an unnatural one. Europe is returning to itself, and when Europe gets sick, the world gets sick with it."
- Top Risks and Ethical Decisions 2015
"The world in 2015 looks a lot more dangerous, a lot more vulnerable," says global political risk specialist Ian Bremmer in his annual forecast. He notes that while the United States and China, the world's largest and second-largest economies, are doing better economically, the global environment is geopolitically much worse.
- Cuba's Pivotal Role on the World Stage
One might not think that a small island like Cuba could play a critical role in world politics. Yet the circumstances of Obama's decision to restore diplomatic relations with Cuba should prompt us to see the country in a new light. We should examine the role of Russia in this event, as well as the repercussions in the rest of Latin America.
- Unaccountable: Janine Wedel on how Elite Power Brokers have Corrupted the U.S. System
Anthropologist Janine Wedel exposes America's "new corruption"--the unprecedented ways that many politicians, retired generals, academics, bankers, and physicians exploit their prestige and insider knowledge.
- America in Retreat: The New Isolationism and the Coming Global Disorder
America is not in decline, but it's certainly in retreat, says Stephens, and this is a mistake. He argues that the United States is the ultimate guarantor of a relatively decent, stable, liberal world order, governed by a sense of rules and the knowledge, both among its friends and adversaries, that it has the will and the wherewithal to ensure its interests.
- Outpost: Life on the Frontlines of American Diplomacy
Former ambassador Hill has worked on some of the most dangerous and difficult problems in U.S. diplomacy, from the Balkans, to North Korea, to Iraq. In this astute and often funny talk, he gives an inside look at his work as a diplomat, and also discusses the latest crises, from ISIS and Syria, to Ukraine and dealing with Russia.
- From "Indispensable Nation" to "Realism-Based Restraint": Reconsidering U.S. Engagement with the World
Former ambassador Chas Freeman has had a wide breadth of diplomatic experience, from the Middle East to Africa, East Asia, and Europe. In this conversation he eloquently speaks his mind on the negative effects of sanctions, the folly of U.S. unqualified support for Israel, the U.S. strategy and diplomacy deficits, and much more.
- A Conversation with David Keyes on Advancing Human Rights
In the Soviet era, it was difficult to alert the world of what was happening to dissidents, says David Keyes. Today, however, there's an overload of information from YouTube and other sources and the challenge is how to overcome "human rights fatigue." He explains how crowd-sourcing and other means can get the word out.
- From Paris to Moscow: The Rise of New Far-Right Movements Across Europe
What effect has the Ukraine crisis had on the rise of ultra-nationalist forces in Russia and what has been the impact on Russia's neighbors? What is the situation among Europe's different far-right movements? Russia/Eurasia/Europe expert Marlene Laruelle has answers to these complex questions and more.
- Needs Work: A Troubled U.S.-Russia Relationship
"The febrile hyperbole of criticism directed at Russia as a result of the crisis in Ukraine is misdirected and harmful to both Russia and the United States," argues David Speedie.
- Foreign Fighters in Syria
How is ISIS structured? Why are young Muslims from many countries going to Syria to join it? What is the nature and extent of the threat and how can it be overcome? Counterintelligence expert Richard Barrett (formerly with MI5, MI6, and the UN) gives an informative, balanced, and perceptive report. Don't miss it.
- Was World War I Inevitable?
We're still trying to understand what World War I meant. It is a very complex event, one that has echoes into the present, and we've all been thinking recently about parallels between that world and our own world. One of the very important things is not to start by assuming that it was inevitable.
- Sarajevo Panel Discussion
In this wide-ranging conversation, participants from the Sarajevo Symposium discuss the past, present, and future of the former Yugoslav states with a focus on Bosnia and Herzegovina. How can private citizens and governments work together to build a more pluralistic society?
- Ukraine and the New Divide between the United States and Russia
David Speedie interviews Dr. Dmitri Trenin, director of the Carnegie Moscow Center of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, on how the Ukraine crisis has opened a new fissure in the relationship between the United States and Russia.
- A Clear and Present Danger: Why We Need the UN Security Council to Help Defeat ISIL
The relentless advance of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant poses an existential threat to countries of the region and a grave challenge to the world at large. The curbing and crushing of ISIL requires extraordinary measures, a "coalition of the concerned," led by the United States and working through and in cooperation with the UN Security Council.
- July 1914: Sean McMeekin on the Outbreak of World War I
Would Europe have gone to war had Franz Ferdinand survived his visit to Bosnia? What were the blunders and miscalculations on all sides that fateful July 1914? Read historian Sean McMeekin's take.
- The Last Empire: The Final Days of the Soviet Union
Serhii Plokhy presents a bold new interpretation of the Soviet Union's final months, which places Ukraine at the center of the drama. And by providing the historical background for what is happening now, he shows that there are many key points linking 1991 to today.
- Ukraine Update: The Presidential Elections and Beyond
David Speedie discusses the election of new Ukrainian president Petro Poroshenko with University of Rhode Island's Nicolai Petro and University of Kent's Richard Sakwa, both speaking from Odessa in southern Ukraine.
- Now I Know Who My Comrades Are: Voices from the Internet Underground
Authoritarian governments try to isolate individuals from one another, but in the age of social media this is impossible to do. Online, people discover that they are not alone. As one blogger put it, "Now I know who my comrades are." The question is, what's next?
- Attacks on the Press: Journalism on the Front Lines
Journalists have always faced attacks on their freedom to report stories and often on their physical safety as well. Now they face a new threat: digital surveillance. Electronic spying means that journalists cannot protect their sources, and undermines the public's confidence in the media's ability to operate without government interference.
- Ukraine Update: Report from Odessa
With the deadly conflict in Ukraine spreading to this hitherto calm southern city, David Speedie speaks again with Dr. Nicolai Petro, professor of international relations at the University of Rhode Island, who is currently a Fulbright Fellow in Odessa.
- Ukraine and U.S.-Russian Relations
With balance and objectivity, seasoned Russian policy expert Tom Graham tackles the thorny question of Ukraine and the wider scope of U.S.-Russia relations across the board.
- Ukraine: A Federalist Future?
One possibility of lowering tensions in Ukraine on a longer-term basis is the start of discussions on a federal-decentralized government structure that would not divide the country but would foster local and regional autonomy. However, although federalism is not a first step to Ukraine's disintegration, neither is it a "magic solution."
- Report from Ukraine: The Crisis Moves East
David Speedie discusses with Dr. Nicolai Petro, currently a Fulbright Fellow in Odessa, the recent outbreaks of violence in pro-Russia majority regions of Eastern Ukraine, the prospects for scheduled May elections, and the impact of the continuing crisis on U.S.-Russian relations.
- Ukraine, The Great Powers, Budapest, and "Astheneia"
Was it unethical for the United States to give Ukraine non-binding security guarantees as an inducement for giving up nuclear weapons?
- Iran and Nuclear Proliferation: Update with Joseph Cirincione
Joseph Cirincione, president of the Ploughshares Fund, discusses the status and prospects for the ongoing P5+1 talks in Vienna on Iran's nuclear program, and the importance of successful negotiations for the global nuclear nonproliferation agenda.
- Asia's Cauldron: The South China Sea and the End of a Stable Pacific
No wonder the South China Sea is important to China, says Robert Kaplan. It's the Mediterranean of Asia, the center of international commerce, including energy shipments. Plus, if the Chinese control it and thus gain access to the Indian Ocean, China will have a two-ocean navy, transforming it in military terms from a regional power into a world power.
- An Update from Ukraine
From Odessa, political scientist Dr. Nicolai Petro discusses the unrest in the eastern Donbas region and possibilities for a diplomatic resolution of the Ukraine crisis.
- Iran's Nuclear Program: Status and Prospects for the P5+1 Negotiations
Discussions among the Iran and the P5 countries and Germany on the Iranian nuclear energy program are ongoing in Vienna. William O. Beeman, professor and chair of the Department of Anthropology at the University of Minnesota, who has written extensively on these issues, discusses the current state of affairs and possible outcomes.
- Crisis in Ukraine: Ukraine and Russia Beyond Crimean Secession
Professor Nicolai Petro, currently in Odessa, Ukraine, discusses recent developments, including the secessionist vote in the Crimean peninsula and the subsequent annexation by Russia, outcomes for the rest of Ukraine, and two major speeches by President Putin on the situation and the impact on relations between Russia and the West.
- Taking Effective and Practical Steps Regarding Ukraine
Putin's ultimate goal is to avoid having a Ukraine that is a Western outpost on his border. He needs to be shown that the policies he is now pursuing, if aggressively continued, will result in the very outcome he wants to avoid. The U.S. and its allies must take steps that create conditions and provide time for him to seriously think about it.
- Rein in Ukraine's Neo-Fascists
For a new government to succeed in Ukraine, it's important that the nation's neo-fascist, anti-Semitic, and anti-Russian parties are marginalized, writes David Speedie.
- The Secret of Political Jiu-Jitsu
"While oppression may appear to be a display of the government's power, skilled activists know that it's actually a sign of weakness."
- Crisis in Ukraine: Crimean Stand-Off
In the latest Security Bulletin, Russia expert Professor Nicolai Petro speaks from Odessa in southern Ukraine on the ongoing crisis, with a particular focus on the strategically vital Crimean Peninsula, home to Russia's Black Sea Fleet and to a substantial ethnic Russian population.
- The Fog of Peace: The Human Face of Conflict Resolution
The courageous Gianni Picco played a central role in negotiating the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan, met with Saddam Hussein to bring an end to the Iran-Iraq War, and traveled to both Beirut and Tehran to rescue 11 hostages and 91 other prisoners. How did he do it? By treating adversaries as individuals, not just government representatives.
- New Interview Series, "Ethics in Security Bulletin," with an Initial Focus on Ukraine
This podcast interview series explores the ethical dimensions of issues around the world, from Eastern Europe to the Middle East, and discusses the role played by U.S. foreign policy and the West.
- Crisis in Ukraine: The View from Beyond Kiev
This is the third in a series of Security Bulletins on the crisis in Ukraine, and here Dr. Nicolai N. Petro gives us a view from beyond Kiev, from Odessa in the country's South. He explains the various political factions and warns about the danger of right-wing nationalism--not overnight, perhaps, but over the long term.
- Crisis in Ukraine: The Role and Responsibility of the West
This is the second in a series of Carnegie Council Security Bulletins on the crisis in Ukraine, in conversation with Dr. Anton Shekhovtsov, a Ukrainian-born expert on his nation and on European and Eurasian nationalism, who is now based at University College London.
- The Limits of Partnership: U.S.-Russian Relations in the 21st Century
Sochi, Snowden, and Syria--these are just a few of the issues complicating the U.S.-Russian relationship, says Georgetown's Angela Stent in this dynamic and informed talk. But, because of Russia's strategic location, nuclear arsenal, and presence in the UN, it's a partnership worth working on.
- Crisis in Ukraine: A Voice from Kiev, January 31, 2014
What is the likely outcome of the violent clashes in Ukraine? Does the U.S. and the West have a moral imperative to intervene and, if so, how? Speaking from Kiev, Dr. Andreas Umland assesses the situation.
- Ethics Matter: Top Risks and Ethical Decisions 2014 with Ian Bremmer
So what should we look out for in 2014? "The economic risks are receding. The geopolitical risks are becoming more important," says political risk guru Ian Bremmer. Don't miss this entertaining but fact-filled talk for insights on global affairs, from U.S. foreign policy, to the Middle East, Asia, Russia, Europe, and emerging markets.
- The Future of Transatlantic Security Cooperation after 2014
2014 may be a turning point for transatlantic security cooperation. This paper identifies the three most relevant "drivers" in this regard: financial and resource constraints, a turn towards a more inward-looking perspective in EU and NATO capitals, and shifting power relations in the international system. The paper concludes with policy recommendations.
- Nuclear Nightmares: Securing the World Before It Is Too Late
The threat of a nuclear nightmare is still real, says Joe Cirincione. With unsecured stockpiles in Russia, the ever-present threat of terrorists getting hold of a bomb, and the possibility of a nuclear Iran, America and the world need to pay attention to this potentially catastrophic issue.
- Japan 1941: Countdown to Infamy
Why did Japan recklessly attack the United States in 1941, launching a war that most of the nation's leaders knew they were almost certain to lose? Why did they go ahead, despite heated internal debates? Get the inside story from a Japanese perspective.
- November 22, 1963. "John F. Kennedy Has Been Taken From Us."
"John F. Kennedy has been taken from us; there is an aching emptiness where there was once a bright presence. We are left now to assess his accomplishments and to meditate on the meaning of his death and the almost universal grief it inspired."
- Catastrophe 1914: Europe Goes to War
We should break free of the cliché that World War I was futile, argues Max Hastings. "Germany in 1914, as ruled by the Kaiser and his generals and ministers, represented a malign force whose triumph had to be frustrated."
- Strategy: A History
Creating a successful strategy is not just a question of being cleverer than your opponent. Sir Lawrence Freedman lays out some cardinal rules: think about how you are going to endure; have empathy with those whom you want to work with you, but also those who might oppose you; and be able to form coalitions.
- A Lifeline for Peace in Syria--and for Obama
Why are we so reluctant to say the following? The overriding priority is to end the killing; defanging the Syrian chemical weapons complex will be difficult and long-term, although the U.S.-Russia agreement offers a bold, if challenging, timetable; and Russia has come up with a better idea than we could, and we are prepared to follow and support its lead.
- No, the Sky Is Not Falling
Controversy surrounding the Magnitsky Act and the Edward Snowden affair has led some observers to believe a "new Cold War" is underway between the U.S. and Russia. Are these concerns overblown? Can Moscow and Washington find common ground on other more significant issues?
- Dictator Month Kickoff: Laughtivism—How Humor is Transforming Non-Violent Struggle
Carnegie Council Grants Manager Mladen Joksic's co-authored piece launched Movements.org's dictator appreciation month. An earlier version appeared in "Foreign Policy," titled "Why Dictators Don't Like Jokes."
- Is China Taking the Right Cues From History?
Senior program director and senior fellow Devin Stewart's piece on how China is tackling its many challenges was featured in "Huffington Post."
- After Boston: An Intelligence Blame Game with no Winner
Immediately after the Boston Marathon bombings there was a sadly predictable flurry of mutual recriminations between the intelligence services of the U.S. and Russia. It's time to put suspicions aside and work together against terrorism directed at both countries.
- Breakout Nations: In Pursuit of the Next Economic Miracles
Which countries will be the next big thing? Most follow a four-point cycle, says Sharma: "You have economic crisis. They carry out economic reforms. After they carry out economic reforms, some sort of boom takes place. Then complacency sets in, and then you get back to having a crisis." So beware! Economic development is extremely hard to sustain.
- Why Dictators Don't Like Jokes
Pro-democracy activists around the world are discovering that humor is one of the most powerful weapons in the fight against authoritarianism.
- Is China Taking the Right Cues From History?
Signs suggest that China's new president Xi Jinping will be inclined to double down on communist orthodoxy, based on his reading of the history of the USSR and its 1991 collapse. But is the Chinese leadership misreading history?
- Ethics on Film: Discussion of "In My Lifetime"
This deeply moving documentary tells the history of atomic weapons and the anti-nuclear movement. From Hiroshima and Nagasaki to nuclear tests in Nevada to the START Treaty and other international agreements, this film gives a comprehensive account of these weapons, "the very end point of logic."
- Thought Leader: Alan S. Blinder
"We still view ourselves as the land of opportunity, which, in a sense we are. But the opportunities are not trickling down to the bottom the way they used to."
- U.S.-Russian Juvenilia
"The action of the U.S. Congress in passing the Magnitsky Act and the reaction of Russian politicians that followed it remind me of school kids exchanging imprecations in the schoolyard. Except that, in the current instance, the fallout affects innocent people."
- Public Affairs: China's Search for Security
In this masterly and comprehensive talk, Andrew Nathan looks at the world from Beijing's viewpoint and sees a very challenging environment for China. He identifies four rings of security concerns: inside China's territory; its 24 surrounding countries; six regional systems; and the rest of the world.
- Report from the Middle East
Chuck Freilich's knowledgeable talk gives us an overview of the primary forces at work today in the Middle East--and some potential outcomes. He also provides an insider's analysis of Israel's politics and prospects.
- Arctic Stewardship: Maintaining Regional Resilience in an Era of Global Change [Full Text]
What sorts of harms arising from changes now occurring in the Arctic are actionable, and who can and should take the actions required to respond to these harms?
- The Revenge of Geography: What the Map Tells Us About Coming Conflicts and the Battle Against Fate
With a breadth and depth of knowledge spanning not only current geopolitics but centuries of history, Robert Kaplan shows us the crucial importance of geography in shaping our destinies. Geography still matters, and always will.
- Five Myths About Nuclear Weapons
What if everything we believe about nuclear weapons is wrong? "Reexamine the facts and you'll see that the arguments for nuclear weapons aren't powerful; they're preposterous. They are an unpersuasive collection of wishful thinking held together by nothing more than fear and rationalization."
- Thought Leader: Richard Lugar
"I do approach it in a positive way, that we ought to be thinking about nutrition for every human being, keeping people alive so they have a chance to learn and to be productive."
- The Second Nuclear Age: Strategy, Danger, and the New Power Politics
In the Cold War, the path to nuclear war always led through Moscow and Washington. In the second nuclear age the triggers to nuclear war are in Tel Aviv, Islamabad, Pyongyang, and in the future possibly Tehran, and possibly in other places too, because you can start a nuclear war even if you don't have nuclear weapons.
- Ethics Matter: Srdja Popovic on Creating Successful Nonviolent Movements
Successful nonviolent movements need three things: the cool factor, memorable branding, and humor, says Popovic. He cofounded the Serbian youth movement Otpor!, which played a major role in toppling Milosevic, and his work training activists in Egypt and Tunisia is widely credited for inspiring Arab Spring protesters.
- Syria: The Fall of the House of Assad
David W. Lesch has traveled to Syria repeatedly since 1989 and met President Bashar al-Assad several times in the mid-2000s. He discusses the conflict in the influential Middle Eastern nation, why an American intervention is a dangerous idea, and why Assad has cracked down so absolutely.
- Global Ethics Corner: Anti-Gay Legislation: What Can Be Done?
Anti-gay legislation is garnering support in Ukraine and many other countries are backtracking on equal rights for homosexuals. Is there anything international institutions can do to stop sovereign nations from passing anti-gay laws? Is condemnation enough?
- Senator Richard Lugar on Nuclear Weapons Reduction
Senator Lugar tells the dramatic story of his bipartisan work on the Cooperative Threat Reduction Program (also known as Nunn–Lugar), which provides funding and expertise for states in the former USSR nations to reduce nuclear weapons.
- Is the World Becoming More Peaceful?
In this vigorous discussion, two leading thinkers in global affairs--Harvard professor Steven Pinker and "Atlantic" correspondent Robert D. Kaplan--take on the subject of world peace, a core interest of Carnegie Council.
- PepsiCo's Donald M. Kendall on Russia
Kendall recalls how he opened up the former Soviet Union for PepsiCo, bringing in other U.S. companies as well. He goes on to discuss his warm relationship with Putin, his admiration for the Russian people, and his hopes for better U.S.-Russia relations.
- Dealing with "Enablers" in Mass Atrocities: A New Human Rights Concept Takes Shape
Because mass atrocities are organized crimes, crippling the means to organize and sustain them--money, communications networks, and other resources--can disrupt their execution, writes George Lopez.
- Global Ethics Corner: The Ethics of Cyber Warfare
An influential Russian engineer recently called for an international ban on cyber weapons, saying that they could have unforeseen consequences, but many American analysts disagree. Are these weapons dangerous or are they a cheaper and more ethical alternative to traditional warfare?
- The Impossible State: North Korea, Past and Future
Policy expert and scholar Victor Cha lifts the curtain on North Korea, one of the world's most isolated, poorly-understood, and dangerous nations, and explains why he believes that the level of risk has escalated since Kim Jong-il's death.
- Elections Without Change
According to opinion polls, the majority of Russians still favor Putin for president, despite the evidence that his latest incumbency is a serious setback for democracy. It seems that the lack of a viable alternative candidate diminishes the odds of political change in Russia.
- Every Nation for Itself: Winners and Losers in a G-Zero World
What's a G-zero world? It's when no one takes a global leadership role, when no one is willing to, and no one is capable of doing it--and that's the world we're living in now, according to political scientist Ian Bremmer. So what does this mean for both now and the future?
- Russia Bulletin, Issue 7
Putin is the man that many love to hate, and just three weeks into his new term, critics have heaped scorn on his ambitious economic goals. "Flouting the laws of nature and economic development" was one assessment. Can't they wait a year or so before passing judgment?
- Pax Ethnica: Where and How Diversity Succeeds
The headlines are full of stories of deep-simmering hatreds and ethnic strife. How about some good news for a change? Historians Meyer and Brysac explore places where diversity is actually working, from Kerala to Queens. What can we learn from these "oases of civility"?
- Farewell Dick Lugar: A Gentleman Departs
Despite certain Republicans' claims to the contrary, Dick Lugar was a genuine conservative, albeit a responsible one who saw the advantage of engaging the other side, whether that be Democrats in Congress or Russians on arms control.
- Russia Bulletin, Issue 6
As expected, Vladimir Putin's re-election to the presidency has resulted in a torrent of criticism from all sides. Yet David Speedie argues that for many reasons, Putin deserves the benefit of the doubt and a respite from ad hominem attacks.
- Human Rights Watch World Report 2012
How have governments responded to the recent events in Libya, Syria, Egypt, and other countries such as Bahrain? Ken Roth of Human Rights Watch gives a masterly analysis of international reactions, including those of the U.S., France, India, China, Russia, Turkey, and the Arab League.
- No One's World: The West, the Rising Rest, and the Coming Global Turn
How do we manage a world where no one power is dominant, and emerging powers have their own views about how to organize political, social, and commercial life?
- Russia Bulletin, Issue 5
Jackson-Vanik, enacted during the Cold War by the U.S. to restrict trade with the Soviet Union, remains on the books almost 40 years later. Will the U.S. and Russia be full-fledged trading partners any time soon? David Speedie looks into this issue.
- The Responsibility to Protect: A New International Norm?
What is Responsibility to Protect exactly? Dutch Ambassador Herman Schaper gives an expert talk on how it developed, how it is defined, how it was implemented in Libya, and what are the implications for the future.
- The Oil Curse: How Petroleum Wealth Shapes the Development of Nations
According to Michael Ross, it's no coincidence that major oil-producing countries have less democracy, fewer opportunities for women, more frequent civil wars, and more volatile economic growth than the rest of the world.
- Russia Bulletin, Issue 4
What's the real deal on the elections? What of Kremlin attacks on election monitors and protestors? How will the United States and the West best deal with Russia under Putin II? Read David Speedie's responses to these questions and more.
- Redeemers: Ideas and Power in Latin America
Che Guevara, Fidel Castro, Gabriel Marcia Marquez, Octavio Paz, and many more: Krauze discusses Latin America's intellectual, literary, and political figures who were inspired by revolutionary ideas, and hopes that his book will be "a requiem for the Latin American passionate revolution."
- DarkMarket: Cyberthieves, Cybercops, and You
If you use a computer or a credit card, watch out! Governments, companies, and individuals are losing billions of dollars a year fighting an ever-morphing, often invisible, and often supersmart new breed of criminal: the hacker.
- Russia Bulletin, Issue 3
What lies behind Russia's veto and its opposition to the U.S.-led hard line on Damascus? Whether or not we agree with them, Russia has its reasons.
- Deng Xiaoping and the Transformation of China
Deng Xiaoping was one of the most important leaders of the 20th century. Scholar Ezra Vogel discusses Deng's life, focusing on his work in opening up China to other countries. Vogel also grapples with the 1989 Tiananmen Square massacre, which was carried out on Deng's orders.
- Russia Bulletin, Issue 2
David Speedie examines Russia's position on Iran; the upcoming Russian elections, including the Moscow demonstrations and the West's attitude towards them;and Jackson-Vanik and U.S.-Russia trade.
- Top Risks and Ethical Decisions 2012 with Ian Bremmer
What are the biggest political risks in 2012, and the associated ethical decisions? Political risk guru Ian Bremmer discusses his annual list, and his conclusions may surprise you.
- The Dictator's Handbook: Why Bad Behavior Is Almost Always Good Politics
Cynics or realists? Just follow five rules and you can be a successful dictator, say Bruce Bueno de Mesquita and Alastair Smith--at least until old age or sickness catch up with you. They go on to argue that these precepts apply to all systems of governance, including U.S. democracy.
- Global Ethics Corner: Occupy Moscow
With Vladimir Putin's party receiving a rebuke in the December 4th parliamentary elections, Russia is at a crossroads. With alleged voter fraud and massive protests as a backdrop, could this be the start of a new, more democratic era in Moscow or will Putin prevail?
- The Shadow World: Inside the Global Arms Trade
In 2010, global military expenditure was roughly $1.6 trillion--that's $235 for every person on earth. This has profound impacts, from the perpetuation of conflict, to the corrosion of democracy, to massive socioeconomic costs.
- George F. Kennan: An American Life
George Kennan was one of the great men of the 20th century, says John Lewis Gaddis. And he was great in multiple dimensions: as the grand strategist of the Cold War; as a historian; and as author of one of the greatest of American diaries.
- Putin and his Russia Don't Deserve the Bad Rap
Let's look at some of the most serious accusations leveled at Putin and his Russia. In the right light, we see Russia and Putin have taken some undue heat.
- Justin Harlow on Political Risk and Investment in Emerging Markets
Justin Harlow discusses investing in the energy sector in emerging markets. He is the founder and managing partner of Tau Energy Partners, an energy investment advisory firm dedicated to emerging markets.
- America the Vulnerable: Inside the New Threat Matrix of Digital Espionage, Crime, and Warfare
From the personal to the corporate to the national, our data is constantly at risk, says Joel Brenner. But it's like gravity; there's not much we can do about it. We just have to learn to live with the situation, stay alert, and limit potential damage.
- The Unraveling: Pakistan in the Age of Jihad
U.S. Foreign Service officer John Schmidt explains how the complex, dangerous relationship between the leaders of Pakistan and various jihadist groups came about, and how it all began to unravel after 9/11.
- Carnegie Council's Program on U.S. Global Engagement: a Two-Year Retrospective
These materials from a June 2011 international conference examine U.S.-Russian relations; nuclear arms control and nonproliferation; European and NATO security challenges for the future, including Afghanistan; and competition and cooperation in the Arctic region.
- European Security and Arms Control
Although Russia and the West are confronting each other on a number of issues, it is premature to write off their strategic partnership. The New START Treaty establishes stability of the nuclear balance for the next decade. This will help them eventually move to mutual assured security.
- The Precarious State of Flux of the Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Treaty (CFE)
This paper's main predictive theoretical proposition is that, in fact, progress on conventional arms control in Europe will continue to move at a pace dictated by nuclear atmospherics.
- Jackson-Vanik: Time for Reconsideration?
The Jackson-Vanik amendment has been imposed on Russia for 37 years. Is it time for repeal? This event is in cooperation with EastWest Institute.
- Does the Elephant Dance?: Contemporary Indian Foreign Policy
Former Canadian High Commissioner to India David Malone gives a comprehensive survey of contemporary Indian foreign policy. He begins by focusing on India's geography, history, and capability, and covers relations with the U.S., China, Iran, Pakistan, and Afghanistan.
- What Should be the Next Phase in U.S.-Russia Relations?
Reflecting on U.S.-Russia relations, Thomas Graham and Nikolas Gvosdev agree that there is an urgent need to find a common strategic purpose that suits the interests of both the U.S. and Russia.
- The Future of U.S.-Russian Relations
Can the United States and Russia finally put their zero-sum competition in Eurasia behind them so that they can concentrate on the common strategic challenges before them, such as how to deal with China and with the former Soviet space?
- Russia's High Ambitions and Ambivalent Activities in the Arctic
The Arctic is often seen as a no-mans-land where natural resources are up for grabs. In reality, international cooperation is working well and the regions's wealth has been overestimated. Nonetheless, Russia's ambitions are bound up with the Arctic, and this can lead to tensions.
- Cooling Things Down: The Legalization of Arctic Security
Many are concerned about possible struggles over Arctic territory and resources. Yet this paper argues that most Arctic sovereignty disputes have either been resolved or are actively being negotiated. Thus there is no competition for territory or resources, and no prospect of conflict.
- The Ethics of the Nuclear Security Summit Process
This paper examines the ethical questions around two intertwined 21st century issues: nuclear terrorism and the Nuclear Security Summit (NSS) process. Does the process take into account the principles of pluralism, fairness, and rights and responsibilities?
- The Soviet and U.S. Experiences in Military Intervention in Afghanistan and Current U.S.-Russian Cooperation
This paper examines the similarities and differences in the 1980s Soviet experience in Afghanistan and the current U.S.-led coalition effort, and the mutual interests for Washington and Moscow to avoid the kind of end-game of 1992, when the Najibullah regime fell.
- European/Eurasian Security and the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE)
What is the role of the CFE Treaty as part of contemporary European security architecture? How has it performed since its signing and what is its current status? What steps must be taken to ensure that this agreement remains relevant and continues its "cornerstone" role?
- The Current Status and Prospects for the U.S.-Russia Relationship
The U.S.-Russia relationship is never linear and never always smooth sailing, says Stent. What are the achievements of the reset policy and what remains to be achieved? How can we maintain the momentum that we have now in this relationship and not let it slip again?
- The Collapse of the Soviet Union: Thoughts on the 20th Anniversary
U.S. Ambassador to the USSR Jack Matlock explodes some myths that are current in the United States, in Russia, and in Europe about just how and when the Cold War ended and how and when the Soviet Union collapsed.
- Arms Control and Proliferation Challenges to the Reset Policy
The United States, Russia, and outside observers all agree on one thing: the fragility of the reset policy. This paper clarifies the reasons for this fragility and the consequences for arms control and future cooperation on nonproliferation issues.
- Thomas E. Graham on the End of the Cold War and Beyond
Graham discusses the turbulent period of the mid-1980s to the mid-1990s in Russia, including the relationship between Yeltsin and Gorbachev and the role of other prominent people of the time. He goes on to analyze the post-Cold War multi-polar world.
- Gennady Burbulis on the Dissolution of the USSR
Burbulis was one of the drafters and signers of the 1991 Belavezha Accords, which declared the Soviet Union effectively dissolved. In this interview he discusses the significance of the Accords, his close association with Yeltsin, and the role of the Krieble Institute.
- Ambassador Jack Matlock on the 1991 Soviet Coup Attempt
Today, almost all Russians are convinced that the U.S. brought down the USSR by military and economic pressure. But this is the opposite of the truth, says U.S. Ambassador to the USSR Jack Matlock.
- Confronting Corruption and Ethics in Emerging Markets
Is it possible to grow a company to $1 billion in revenue in Russia without giving a single bribe? In this interactive workshop with high-level professionals, Alcoa's Bill O'Rourke shares how he navigated the murky ethical conundrums that that come with leadership of a global business.
- Alexandr Urmanov on Democratic Elections and Campaigning for Yeltsin
Urmanov recalls his relationship with Yeltsin--he directed his presidential campaign in 1989/1990--and with the Krieble Institute, which trained Russians in election techniques. Urmanov brought Institute staff to the Urals, formerly off-limits to foreigners, and they invited him to the U.S.
- Mikhail Reznikov on Working to Bring Democracy to Russia
When Krieble Institute representatives from the U.S. first visited Russia, it was "like a collision of civilizations," recalls Reznikov. He got involved in Russian politics in the heady days of 1989 and worked with the Institute to train people across Russia in the workings of democratic elections.
- Interview with Gavriil Popov, First Democratically Elected Mayor of Moscow
Gavriil Popov was mayor of Moscow in the turbulent days of the early 1990s, and his key appointees played crucial roles in bringing about the end of the Soviet Union.
- Evgeny Savostiyanov on Dismantling the Moscow Communist KGB
Evgeny Savostiyanov was one of two key appointments made by "reformist" Mayor Gavriil Popov during his brief tenure as mayor of Moscow from 1990-92. Savostiyanov was made head of the Moscow KGB, with a view to "dismantling" the old Soviet-era version.
- RUSSIA AND THE FORMER SOVIET REPUBLICS
Russia, the world's largest country, remains a key global player. These resources examine aspects of Russia today and its relationship with the rest of the world, and look at some of the former Soviet Republics and the 2008 Russia-Georgia conflict.
- Alcoa's William O'Rourke: Ethical Business Practices, from Russia to Sustainability
It's all about personal convictions: Bill O'Rourke explains how he grew Alcoa's business in Russia to $1B revenue without giving a single bribe, and how he fosters sustainability, health, and safety practices in his current U.S. position.
- Arkady Murashev on "Reforming" the Moscow Police Force (1991-92)
Active in Russian politics since the early days of Perestroika, Arkady Murashev discusses his part in bringing down the Soviet Union and and working towards a new form of government.
- Media in Contemporary Russia
What is the current situation of journalism in Russia today, where 70 percent of media is owned by the state? The Council welcomes a delegation of Russia's media leaders for a frank discussion.
- Reflections from Moscow
After a recent visit to Moscow, David Speedie casts a sympathetic eye on Russia's contradictions and societal stresses--with particular focus on its heroin and HIV/AIDS crisis. Russia now has the third-highest heroin abuse rate per capita in the world, behind only Afghanistan and Iran.
- John Exnicios on Training USSR Dissidents
David Speedie interviews John Exnicios, former vice president of the Krieble Institute. Exnicios played a lead role in training Russian dissidents in the last years of the Soviet Union.
- The Next Decade: Where We've Been...and Where We're Going
The challenge of the next decade is not American power, says George Friedman. It is the preservation of the republic through a management of the international system that faces the fact that, intended or not, we're an empire. So long as we refuse to face that, we can't be effective.
- The Net Delusion: The Dark Side of Internet Freedom
Amid the euphoria about the power of the Internet and social media, Morozov sounds a note of caution. He reminds us that these tools can also entrench dictators, threaten dissidents, and make it harder--not easier--to promote democracy.
- Bread, Rice and Freedom: The Peasantry and Agriculture in the USSR and China (May/June, 1983)
This article was first published in the May/June 1983 issue of "Freedom at Issue," published by Freedom House. It includes a comparative analysis of the Stalin and Mao famines.
- The Caucasus: An Introduction
Known as "the lands in between," the Caucasus has long been an arena of great-power contact and conflict. The region is often seen as intractable, yet we should discard misleading cliches such as "ancient hatreds" and "frozen conflicts," says Thomas de Waal.
- The Lost Peace: Leadership in a Time of Horror and Hope, 1945-1953
In a striking reinterpretation of the postwar years, Robert Dallek examines what drove leaders around the globe—Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin, Mao, de Gaulle, and Truman—to rely on traditional power politics, and the lessons we can draw from their mistakes.
- Facts Are Subversive: Political Writing from a Decade Without a Name
Looking back over the last decade, Timothy Garton Ash catalogues the challenges facing the EU--the economy, a united foreign policy, the integration of Muslims--and concludes that despite its problems the union has taken important steps forward.
- Ukraine: Reset to a Future of Strength
The "reset button" between Washington and Moscow, far from leaving our former Soviet allies in the cold, has enabled a country like Ukraine to pursue interests and alliances with new vigor. And this is positive for all parties involved, writes Jay Hallen.
- Arms Control and the New Strategic Concept
As NATO leaders seek to agree upon a new Strategic Concept, there appear to be both new opportunities and challenges in applying arms control as a diplomacy tool, writes Col. Jeffrey McCausland (Ret.).
- Shale Gas Goes Global
Shale gas reserves are being explored on nearly every continent, with the United States leading the way in the controversial drilling practice called hydraulic fracturing or hydrofracking.
- Reviving Nuclear Ethics: A Renewed Research Agenda for the Twenty-First Century [Abstract]
Since the end of the Cold War, international ethicists have focused largely on issues outside the traditional scope of security studies. The nuclear ethics literature needs to be revived and reoriented to address the new and evolving 21st century nuclear threats and policy responses.
- NUCLEAR WEAPONS, 2010
Sixty-five years after the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, nuclear weapons remain one of the greatest dangers we face. Today the world has an estimated 23,000 nuclear weapons, the equivalent of about 150,000 Hiroshima bombs.
- Activism and Policy: Prospects for Change in Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan is one of the most closed societies in the world. Its media and education system are propaganda tools and all opposition is crushed. Meanwhile, other countries are competing hotly for its vast resources of natural gas. What pressures can help bring about change?
- The Bloom is off the Rose--and the Orange, and the Tulip
What went wrong with the "Color Revolutions" in Ukraine, Georgia, and Kyrgyzstan? It was a combination of excessive expectations of the new leaders, and some policy missteps, primarily at the hands of the U.S. and the West.
- Beyond the NPT
Doctors Roald Sagdeev and Frank von Hippel have collaborated for decades on nuclear arms control and nonproliferation between the U.S. and the USSR. They discuss their work and their insights for the future arms control agenda.
- The Responsibility to Protect—Five Years On [Abstract]
States' Responsibility to Protect vulnerable populations has become a prominent feature in international debates about preventing genocide and mass atrocities and about protecting potential victims. But profound disagreements persist about RtoP's function, meaning, and proper use.
- The United States and the UN's Targeted Sanctions of Suspected Terrorists: What Role for Human Rights? [Full Text]
The UN Security Council's approach to counterterrorism, which the United States has greatly shaped, has generally shown a marked human rights deficit. The process for seizing the assets of and imposing travel bans on suspected terrorists and their financiers must be reformed.
- The End of the Free Market: Who Wins the War Between States and Corporations?
Ian Bremmer demonstrates the growing challenge that state capitalism will pose for the entire global economy, and what free market nations must do to protect their economies as this new system gains popularity.
- Soviet Fates and Lost Alternatives: From Stalinism to the New Cold War
Washington has squandered the opportunity for a fundamentally new U.S.-Russian relationship after the Cold War, says Stephen Cohen.
- Global Ethics Corner: After the War on Terror
Will the next dominant international conflict be between state capitalism and free market capitalism? Will it supplant the war on terror? What do you think?
- Dealing with Iran: "Missed Opportunities" and "Holding Contradictory Ideas at the Same Time"
How, ask David Speedie and Gary Sick, can we move the U.S.-Iran dialogue beyond the current mutually recriminatory stalemate?
- After START--What Next? David Speedie Interviews Jayantha Dhanapala
Jayantha Dhanapala, former under-secretary-general for Disarmament Affairs at the UN, gives his views on "getting to zero" on nuclear weapons.
- A Mosque in Munich: Nazis, the CIA, and the Rise of the Muslim Brotherhood in the West
What do Nazis, the CIA, and the rise of the Muslim Brotherhood in the West have in common? Journalist Ian Johnson tells the untold story of a group of ex-Soviet Muslims who defected to Germany during World War II has a lesson for today: beware of using religion as a tool.
- Book Review: "The End of the Free Market" by Ian Bremmer
State capitalism differs from free-market capitalism in that politics rather than profit is the main driver of decision-making. For this reason, it threatens to curtail free markets and the global economy.
- Rise of the Rest
The Council's "Rise of the Rest" project focuses not on decline of existing powers but on the emergence of others. The U.S. should accept these developments for what they are, recognize the interests of others, and see opportunity for burden sharing rather than threat to primacy.
- How Enemies Become Friends: The Sources of Stable Peace
Diplomatic engagement with rivals, far from being appeasement, is critical to rapprochement between adversaries, says Charles Kupchan, and diplomacy, not economic interdependence, creates the path to peace.
- The Georgia-Russia War in South Ossetia: The Russian View
Published by the Moscow-based Center of Analysis of Strategies and Technologies, "The Tanks of August" is a must read, as it offers both factual and analytical perspectives which most Western readers rarely encounter.
- Freedom for Sale: Why the World Is Trading Democracy for Security
From Russia and China to the U.S. and the U.K., many seemingly dissimilar countries have an "unwritten pact," under which, consciously or not, the population trades some of their democratic rights for better living standards and political stability.
- Superpower Illusions: How Myths and False Ideologies Led America Astray--and How to Return to Reality
Jack Matlock, American ambassador to the Soviet Union from 1987 to 1991, corrects a number of pervasive myths about the Cold War, including the belief that it ended with the fall of the Soviet Union and that the U.S. effectively won.
- Good Neighbors? The Shanghai Cooperation Organization
The West has largely dismissed the Shanghai Cooperation Organization as some kind of empty anti-U.S., anti-NATO rhetorical flourish, writes David Speedie. Yet in fact its expanded role and reach are demonstrable, impressive, and likely to continue.
- Obama's Foreign Policy: What Matters and What Doesn't for America's Future
Elections and campaigns are about options. Governing is about constraints. For Obama--and every president--what happens when foreign policy options meet foreign policy constraints?
- Red Cloud at Dawn: Truman, Stalin, and the End of the Atomic Monopoly
How does a state make a nuclear bomb? How does it hide its weapons program? How do other states detect nuclear proliferation? Gordin addresses important questions about how we think about nuclear weapons past and present.
- U.S-Russia Relations and the Arctic
This set of two papers, one by a Canadian and one by a Russian, focuses on U.S.-Russian competition and cooperation in the Arctic region, looking particularly at security, commercial, and environmental issues of shared concern.
- The Arctic: The Next "Hot Spot" of International Relations or a Region of Cooperation?
Dr. Morozov identifies several key points regarding both the existing problems and challenges of the Arctic region, as well as possible ways to overcome them through joint efforts by the actors operating in the region.
- Cold Peace: International Cooperation Takes Hold in the Arctic
Thanks to international law, there is no race for Arctic resources, nor any appetite for military confrontation. The Arctic has become a zone of quiet cooperation, as countries work together to map the seabed, protect the environment, and guard against new, non-state security threats.
- Prospects for Arms Control in the Obama Administration: An Interview with John Isaacs
John Isaacs, Executive Director of the Council for a Livable World, discusses nuclear weapons treaties and their relevance for U.S. foreign policy, domestic politics, and the global arms control agenda.
- Prospects for Arms Control in the Obama Administration
John Isaacs discusses nuclear weapons treaties and their relevance for U.S. foreign policy, domestic politics, and the global arms control agenda.
- Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Non-violent Action from Gandhi to the Present
Should civil resistance be seen as potentially replacing violence completely, or as a phenomenon that operates in conjunction with, and as a modification of, power politics?
- Afghanistan Briefing
"Afghanistan makes Iraq look easy," says U.S. Army Colonel (Ret.) Senior Fellow Dr. McCausland. His comprehensive and evenhanded briefing analyzes the situation on the ground and the possible consequences of sending more troops.
- The Opening of the Berlin Wall: A 20-Year Retrospective
The sudden downfall of the Communist regimes in 1989 and the opening of the Berlin Wall are sometimes depicted as the inevitable result of a lengthy process of systemic decay. But in fact there was nothing inevitable about the outcome.
- Hunting the Hare
"He that hunts two hares will catch neither," runs an old proverb. In the current unruly security environment, with challenges aplenty for the Obama administration, the hare to be pursued remains the reduction of the global nuclear threat, says David Speedie.
- David Speedie Interviews Baroness Shirley Williams: A View from the United Kingdom on Transatlantic Relations
In a wide-ranging conversation, Baroness Williams discusses the Obama administration's foreign policy; the situation in Afghanistan and in Iran; U.S. and British politics, including voter representation and corruption; and her work on nuclear disarmament.
- Crude World: The Violent Twilight of Oil
From Ecuador to Nigeria, in most oil-producing countries oil has not brought any benefits to the poor and has often damaged people's health and ruined the environment, says Peter Maass. As for Iraq, although the war was not "all about oil," oil certainly played an important role.
- Afghanistan, Central Asia, and U.S./NATO and Russia: Four New Carnegie Council Papers
On the eve of the Afghan elections, the Carnegie Council's U.S. Global Engagement Program presents a set of four papers--two by Americans, two by Russians--covering U.S./NATO-Russia cooperation on Afghanistan and Central Asia.
- Prospects for U.S.-Russia Cooperation in Central Asia
Yuri Morozov proposes several ways that the United States and Russia can expand their cooperation in Central Asia, particularly in Afghanistan, in order to neutralize security challenges in the region.
- Resetting the Reset
The "reset button" has become the metaphor for restoring U.S.-Russia relations. But is it working? Despite the progress made, a number of critical arms control issues have simply not been addressed, plus there has been a series of missteps.
- Possible Attributes of a New Russian-American Treaty on Strategic Offensive Weapons: The View from Russia
Should the START Treaty expire in December without a new treaty (or accord) that has counting rules and verification procedures spelled out, it will be impossible to ensure that Russia and the U.S. fulfill their obligations to reduce the number of nuclear warheads on deployed strategic delivery vehicles, says Viktor Esin.
- Bargaining Chip or Gas Mask? Prospects for Missile Defense
John Isaacs and Travis Sharp review the history of missile defense since World War II in search of insights that can be applied to the current situation. They argue that Obama retains two viable options for missile defense in Europe: "The Bargaining Chip" or "The Gas Mask".
- Russia and U.S.-Russia Relations: David Speedie Interviews Ambassador Thomas Pickering
Ambassador Thomas Pickering discusses Russia's role in the unfolding events in Iran and other potential areas of cooperation between Russia and the United States, including missile defense and NATO enlargement.
- Ethical Competence in International Relations [Full Text]
In order to participate effectively in international relations, this essay argues that international actors of all kinds, including states, international organizations, corporations, and individuals, have to acquire the skills necessary to protect freedom and diversity in the modern world.
- George Kennan, the Soviet Union, and the Cold War Reconsidered
Historian John Lukacs discusses his close friend George Kennan. Kennan was an architect of the Cold War, but after 1950 he became one of its critics and recommended a dialogue with the Russians. Why the seeming contradiction?
- Global Ethics Corner: Is the Free Market Central to America's Future?
New York is no longer viewed as the financial capital of the world, or even of the United States. Given the recent government intervention in states' economies, will the free-market model be able to compete?
- After President Obama's Visit to Europe: U.S. Relations with the EU, NATO, and Russia
Distinguished German statesman Karsten Voigt discusses the German political mindset, which grew out of its situation after World War II; Obama's popularity in Germany; and U.S.-German relations in the context of the EU, NATO, and Russia.
- Prospects for U.S.-Russia Relations
Russian Ambassador H.E. Mr. Kislyak's comprehensive talk includes his thoughts on U.S.-Russia relations, nuclear proliferation, and Russia today. He also gives us the Russian perspective on the conflict with Georgia.
- Winston Churchill's Evolving Views of Russia, 1917-1953, Reconsidered
John Lukacs argues that despite the different attitudes Winston Churchill took towards Russia over a 40-year period, there is an amazing consistency to his view of that nation, whether it was Tsarist or Soviet.
- Reset Button Plus
David C. Speedie argues that the Obama mantra for U.S.-Russia relations is "hit the 'reset button,'" yet the Clinton years (1992-2000) were a mixed bag. We should aim for a "reset button plus," one that engages Russia on a host of issues that would directly serve America's self interest.
- Political Futures Mar 09 Segment 4: The Petro-states (6:13 mins)
Everyone is affected by the global economic crisis. But what are the special challenges facing petro-states, such as Venezuela, Iran, and Iraq?
- Political Futures Mar 09 Segment 3: US Foreign Policy (4:53 mins)
Is the new U.S. administration off to a good start with its approach to foreign policy?
- Political Futures Feb 09 Segment 4: Israel, Iran, Cuba, Russia (5:50 mins)
Are we on track with diplomatic engagement with Iran? Are the Israelis going to attack Iran to slow down the Iranian nuclear program? How will our relations with Russia and Cuba evolve under Obama?
- Political Futures Feb 09 (Video in full) (27:12 mins)
Ian Bremmer (Eurasia Group) and Joel Rosenthal (Carnegie Council) discuss top risks for 2009, including the dangers of over-regulation; Bush legacy issues, such as Guantanamo; climate change; and U.S. relations with China, Russia, Israel, Iran, and Cuba.
- The Next 100 Years: A Forecast for the 21st Century
George Friedman, founder and CEO of Strategic Forecasting, Inc., asks: What's in store during this new century? Which nations will gain and lose power? How will new technologies change the way we live? He has some predictions that may surprise you.
- Political Futures Jan 09 (Video in full) (27:04 mins)
Ian Bremmer and Joel Rosenthal discuss the possible risks they see on the horizon for 2009, including the financial crisis, "black swans," security, and Russia, Iran, and Turkey.
- Political Futures Jan 09 Segment 4: Russia, Iran, and Turkey (8:22 mins)
What does the U.S. need to know about Russia, Iran and Turkey for 2009? Are U.S. issues the same as those of other countries?
- Political Futures Jan 09 Segment 6: Insuring Against Global Riots (9:35 mins)
If we look around and see all the different threats and we had some money to spend on insurance, where should we be investing against risk?
- Global Ethics Corner: Morgenthau and the New Administration
Should we observe Morgenthau's principles--avoid the crusading spirit and heed others' perspectives--or is promoting democracy and taking a forceful stand indispensable to U.S. foreign policy?
- A Conversation on NATO
The post-Cold War NATO has expanded, both in mission and membership. In each instance, problems have arisen with Russia. What are the lessons to be learned from these stresses, and what are NATO's prospects?
- David Speedie Interviews Ted Sorensen
"A president who doesn't go to war may show more courage than one who does," said JFK. In a wide-ranging conversation, Sorensen discusses JFK, Cuba, and Vietnam; the 2008 Russia/Georgia conflict; McCain's idea of a League of Nations; and the promise of Obama.
- After Georgia: Russia, NATO, and the CFE
Can the CFE Treaty assist in reestablishing security in the North Caucasus or has both its credibility and utility been undermined permanently?
- Russia and Georgia: How Did We Get There and What's Next? David Speedie Interviews Oksana Antonenko
This conflict started from the ethnic conflict between the Georgians and South Ossetians, which has a long history, and it also started with Georgian aggression.
- Russia and Georgia: How Did We Get There and What's Next?
Georgia and Russia expert Oksana Antonenko discusses the history behind the headlines, and what the future may bring to this troubled region.
- Russia and Georgia: A Collision Waiting to Happen
In the war between Russia and Georgia over South Ossetia the inevitable inclination is to assign black and white, blame and innocence. The truth is more complex, and is rooted in history.
- David Speedie Interviews Susan Eisenhower
Senior Fellow David Speedie interviews Susan Eisenhower, granddaughter of President Eisenhower and USSR and Russian specialist, about Russia's current place in the world and its relations with other countries.
- The Rise of the Rest II: How the Ascent of Russia and China Affects Global Business and Security
From economic growth to cultural exports, the global distribution of power is shifting from "the West" to the rest of the world. This panel addresses the effects of this emerging new reality.
- SPECIAL REPORT: Proposed U.S. Missile Defenses in Europe
The U.S. proposal to establish missile defense sites in Poland and the Czech Republic has greatly exacerbated relations with Russia. Are we headed towards a new Cold War? Two U.S. and two Russian defense experts analyze the situation.
- ONLINE EXCLUSIVE: On U.S. Plans to Deploy ABM Systems in Europe and Possible Compromise Solutions
Petr Romashkin and Pavel Zolotarev argue that the current state of Russian-U.S. relations in the area of missile defense cannot be evaluated without taking a retrospective look at the problem.
- Twilight War: The Folly of U.S. Space Dominance
Except for the U.S. and Israel, every nation favors a treaty to prevent the weaponization of space. China has been pushing the U.S. on this since 1999. What are we waiting for?
- Petrostate: Putin, Power, and the New Russia
"There's no one to talk to since Mahatma Gandhi died," sighs Putin. In a funny and frightening talk, Marshall Goldman unravels the tangled links between Putin, Russia's new elites, the petroleum industry, and Russia's resurgence.
- Counselor: A Life at the Edge of History
In this 2008 talk, Special Counsel and Advisor to John F. Kennedy Ted Sorensen recalls his life and times with JFK, including the dramas of desegregation and the Cuban Missile Crisis.
- Fixing Failed States: A Framework for Rebuilding a Fractured World
Drawing on his background at the World Bank and as the first post-Taliban finance minister of Afghanistan, Ashraf Ghani (and co-author Clare Lockhart) develops a comprehensive framework for understanding the problem of state-building. In 2014, Dr. Ghani became president of Afghanistan.
- Missile Defense Malfunction: Why the Proposed U.S. Missile Defenses in Europe Will Not Work [Full Text]
The U.S. proposal to establish missile defense sites in Poland and the Czech Republic has exacerbated relations with Russia to a degree not seen since the Cold War, despite the fact that the system has no demonstrated capability to defend the U.S., let alone Europe.
- U.S.-Russia Relations: Under Stress, and in Need of Care
There are two essential truths concerning the current state of the U.S.-Russia relationship: it is bad, as bad as at any time since the Cold War's end; and it is getting worse.
- U.S.-Russia Relations and Climate Change After the G8
Nikolas K. Gvosdev examines the declining effectiveness of the G8 summits and the U.S.-Russian politics of climate change and missile defense that played out at this year's meeting.
- Transatlantic Relations After the G8
Lieven explores the increasing complexity of US-EU-Russian relations due to energy interdependence, stalled eastward expansion of the EU, and the overall diminished power of the West, the delicate balance making it more difficult to resolve issues in places like Kosovo and South Ossetia.
- European Energy Security and the Role of Russia
As demand continues to grow, Gernot Erler asks, can Europe persuade Russia to guarantee its future energy needs?
- North Korea's Nuclear Detonation and Northeast Asian Politics
Are the major powers prepared to live with a nuclear North Korea if the detonation acts as a check on U.S. power? How will events move forward—and what precedents are being set for how the Iranian crisis may also be resolved?
- Sons of the Conquerors: The Rise of the Turkic World
Hugh Pope discusses the past, present, and future of the Turkic world, which stretches from Central Asia to Turkey. His topics include oil, trade, and the question of Turkey and the EU.
- Countries Torn Over Baring Warts in History Texts
This "Education Week" article is about how countries struggle to come to terms with their pasts.
- Climate Change and Human Rights
For the Arctic's Inuit, climate change is having very real human rights effects. Sheila Watt-Cloutier describes their creative efforts to hold governments accountable.
- The Oligarchs: Wealth and Power in the New Russia
Is Khordorovsky a captialist or a criminal, and what does his case teach us about Putin's Russia?
- The Piratization of Russia: Russian Reform Goes Awry
How did a small group of Russian oligarchs manage to amass incredible fortunes in the short period following the end of the Cold War? Marshall Goldman explains the peculiarities of the post-Soviet economic and political space that opened the way for the rise of the oligarchs.
- The September 11 Effect [Full Text]
Since it seems that the leaders of the antiterrorist campaign are scripting their objectives to fit as they go along, the public should be more careful in deciding which policies it wants to support.
- Ethical Issues for Today
What is the difference between ethics and law? Unlike the law, ethics involves other people, says Elie Wiesel, in this powerful, moving, and wide-ranging talk in 1996. We must be sensitive to the needs of others and constantly ask ourselves if we are doing enough to stand up for victims and care for others, both compatriots and strangers.
- Privatization and Investment Opportunities in Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan has enormous resources and a literate population, but this large country is heir to exploitative methods of economic development that have ravaged the environment.
- The Politics of Russia's Privatization Program
The Russian privatization program is overtly political. To make privatization work, managers, local governments, and workers' collectives need incentives to push for it.
- Privatization in the Republic of Russia
"Since the course of the Russian government is the integration of our economy into that of the worlds', our rules must be compatible with the rules accepted in the world."
- The Prudent Cold Warrior [Abstract]
Reinhold Niebuhr's Cold War stance, which he applied to both the USSR and to China, was a middle ground between the harsh amorality of the realists and the overly hopeful liberal view. Sizemore explicates Niebuhr's Chinese position to provide a skeptical criticism of Reagan's Central American policies.
- Superpower Ethics: The Rules of the Game [Abstract]
International systems have historically come in two forms: those based on the balance of power and those of a revolutionary nature, including systems organized around bipolar competition. Stanley Hoffmann finds the world order of 1987 to contain both these systems and judges it both ambiguous and original. To mark Dr. Hoffmann's death on September 13, 2015, this article is free online for a limited time.
- Superpower Ethics: A Third World Perspective [Abstract]
In 1987, the philosophies of a U.S. grounded in political liberalism and a Soviet Union grounded in economic redistribution were at odds. Mazrui argues that each superpower's actions ultimately supported the other's philosophy.
- Superpower Ethics: Western European Dilemmas: Man, State, and History [Abstract]
Hassner reflects upon the profound differences among the European views of the superpowers and the challenge the United States and the Soviet Union face in establishing a common ethics.
- Is There An Ethic To NATO? [Abstract]
Phillips suggests ways to reaffirm the rule of law and the commitment to social justice and to build such values into Western foreign policy, rather than use them as public relations tinsel.
- Helsinki, Human Rights, and the Gorbachev Style [Abstract]
Korey traces the evolution of the dispute over the Helsinki Accord and discusses Gorbachev's uneven attempts to improve the Soviet Union's recognition of human rights.
- Russia's Nightmare Joke--and Daytime Reality
"What if, today, the last great empire on earth were nothing more than a fiction trying its best to convince both itself and others of its reality? Most important of all, which factor predominates in the Russian empire today--its strength or its weakness?"
- The Year that was 1963
"Nineteen sixty-three has proved a turbulent and a humbling year....The deaths of two men did most to remind us sharply of the kind of world we live in and the values we hold most dear. Both Pope John XXIII and John F. Kennedy emphasized the use of reason and the necessity for peace, and the need for reason in the pursuit of peace."
- Superpower Ethics: An Introduction [Abstract]
Aristotle's "virtue," Kant's "good intent," and the "good result" of the consequentialists are inadequate to determine right on the superpower playing field. In reference to this insufficiency, Nye sketches the arguments of the subsequent articles on the state of superpower ethics.
- Print Introduction
Bringing together little-known archival footage and brand-new interviews, "Playing for Power" sheds light on the prominent and backroom players who brought Boris Yeltsin to power in 1991, but lost momentum during the implementation of democracy in Russia.
- The Wallenberg Case Revisited: A Focus on Its Ethical Dimensions (Case Study #17)
For the international community to recognize the legitimacy of a successor state, that state must be held accountable for its political crimes. For Russia, the ethical imperative is full disclosure regarding the Wallenberg kidnapping.