- To Fight Against This Age: On Fascism and Humanism, with Rob Riemen
No more euphemisms and denials, says Rob Riemen in this frightening and inspiring talk. Call it by its name: fascism. Neither technology, nor economic growth, nor political activism can fix this, he continues. We must create a new counterculture that replaces kitsch and conformism with truth, empathy, beauty, and justice.
- A Liberal Democracy Doesn't Fall from the Sky
"The West appears to face its end," writes Alexander Görlach. "After 70 years of hegemony, fundamental opposition carries the day in countless places. This opposition stands in stark denial of the West's core principles of citizenship and social liberties: tolerance of religious minorities, equality of the sexes, free speech, and openness to diverse lifestyles." But we shouldn't accept this as inevitable, he declares. We must go into battle.
- The Ukrainian Night: An Intimate History of Revolution, with Marci Shore
"'Likes' don't count," was the rallying cry that first brought people to the Maidan. In this remarkable conversation, Marci Shore explores what it means "to experience revolution in your own skin": the human transformation, blurring of time, and destroying of boundaries during this "extraordinary coming together of men, of women, of young people, of old people, of Jews, of Armenians, of Russian speakers, of Ukrainian speakers."
- Russian Soft Power in France: Assessing Moscow's Cultural and Business Para-diplomacy
Don't miss this fascinating account that maps Russian soft power in France by looking at networks that are not directly state-produced: diaspora organizations, those linked to business, the major Orthodox foundations, the Russian Orthodox Church, and the think tanks and media realms.
- Trump's National Security Strategy, with Julianne Smith
"I would say most of the people I have talked to outside of government, including some people in Congress, have been a little taken aback," says Julie Smith, senior fellow at Center for a New American Security. "A lot of people have been left scratching their heads because a lot of what appears in the strategy has actually been contradicted by the president himself in one or another of his tweet storms."
- Top Carnegie Council Resources, 2017
2017 will be remembered for upheavals across the board and Carnegie Council's audience picks reflect this. Our most popular podcasts and web resources this year focused on shifts in the established geopolitical order; migrants and refugees; and the disruptions brought about by new technologies.
- Fractured Continent: Europe's Crises and the Fate of the West, with William Drozdiak
In some ways Europe is more fragmented than at any time in the last three decades, says Drozdiak. There's a north/south split between wealthy creditor nations and deeply indebted ones; an east/west divide, as Poland and Hungary revert to nationalism; pressures of regional separatism; Brexit; and the migrant crisis. Then there's Trump, who sees Europe as a burden and economic rival. 2018 could be a pivotal year. What will happen?
- Rescue: Refugees and the Political Crisis of Our Time, with David Miliband
Today there are 65 million people who have fled their homes because of conflict or persecution, says the International Rescue Committee's David Miliband. These are refugees not economic migrants, and half of them are children. It's a long-term crisis that will last our lifetimes. Why should we care? And what can we do about it, both at a policy level and as individuals?
- Don't Be Fooled by Cosmetic Changes: The West-Saudi Alliance Is More Morally Dubious Than Ever
"Aside from inertia and vague promises of support in fighting terrorist groups, there is little to justify the continuation of the close relationship between self-professed liberal democratic nations and Saudi Arabia," argues Carter Vance.
- Carnegie Council Appoints Nine Fellows for the Project, "The Living Legacy of the First World War"
Carnegie Council announces the selection of nine fellows who will receive stipends and other support to pursue research under the project "The Living Legacy of the First World War." The selected fellows will pursue original research and writing for publication. They will conduct podcasted interviews and attend a conference at a location to be determined.
- Marlene Laruelle on Europe's Far-Right Political Movements
What has led to the rise of far-right parties across Europe and how have they evolved over time? Is immigration really the main issue, or is there a more complex set of problems that vary from nation to nation? What are the ideological and practical connections between the far right and Russia? Carnegie Council Senior Fellow Marlene Laruelle is an expert on Europe, Russia, Eurasia, and Europe's far right. Don't miss her analysis.
- Over 60 Organizations in 30+ Countries Celebrate Global Ethics Day, 2017
October 18, 2017 marked the fourth annual Global Ethics Day, with participation from over 60 organizations and individuals from 31 countries on five continents. Founded by Carnegie Council in 2014 to celebrate its centennial, Global Ethics Day is a global teach-in, an opportunity for institutions to explore the role of ethics in a globalized world. From Gambia to Nicaragua to Romania, everyone celebrated in their own way.
- Plutopia: Nuclear Families in Atomic Cities, with Kate Brown
Chernobyl is considered the greatest nuclear disaster of all time. But over decades America's Hanford plant and Russia's Mayak plant each issued almost four times the amount of radiation as Chernobyl. Historian Kate Brown explains that in the closed atomic cities serving these plutonium plants, "residents gave up their civil and biological rights for consumer rights." How does today's America mirror these segregated plutopias?
- Democracy and Its Crisis, with A. C. Grayling
Representative democracy in the UK has been corrupted by the three B's, says Grayling: blackmail, bullying, and bribery. There are similar problems in the United States. To make things worse, covert persuasion tactics via social media are rampant. Yet we can still make representative democracy work, he says. We need transparency, breaking of the grip of the party machine, and control of the amount of money spent on elections.
- The Future of War: A History, with Lawrence Freedman
"Though most of the literature you will read on the future of war certainly talks about war as between regular armies, as proper fights, now with drones or with autonomous vehicles or robots or whatever, or even painless--cyber and so on--yet actually the reality of war is as it has always been: it is vicious, and it is nasty, and it kills the wrong people, and it does so in considerable numbers."
- The Ordinary Virtues: Moral Order in a Divided World
To mark Carnegie Council's Centennial, Michael Ignatieff and team set out to discover what moral values people hold in common across nations. What he found was that while universal human rights may be the language of states and liberal elites, what resonate with most people are "ordinary virtues" practiced on a person-to-person basis, such as tolerance and forgiveness. He concludes that liberals most focus on strengthening these ordinary virtues.
- Carnegie Council Fellows Respond: Making Ethics Matter, 2017
Carnegie Council has pledged to be a counter-force to the corrosive tone that frequently dominates the news; to focus on the ethical principles at stake; and to set an example by demonstrating fact-based, civil dialogue. Carnegie Council Fellows respond with their perspectives on the troubling and divisive issues we face today.
- Russian Media and Politics from Soviet Times to Putin, with Jonathan Sanders
Jonathan Sanders lived in Russia for a total of roughly 20 years, both as an academic researcher and as a journalist for CBS News, and has an insider's perspective on Russia and its people. He discusses the contradictions of Russian media under Putin--the "mass, crass" state-controlled media and the dissident material and rambunctious memes on RuTube--and shares personal stories of his connections with Yeltsin, Putin, and more.
- An Uncertain Ally: Turkey Under Erdoğan's Dictatorship with David L. Phillips
"We need to face the fact that Turkey under Erdoğan has become a rogue regime," declares David L. Phillips. It's a corrupt, repressive, Islamist dictatorship. The U.S. should no longer regard it as an ally, but as a strategic adversary.
- New Book, "The Ordinary Virtues: Moral Order in a Divided World" by Carnegie-Uehiro Centennial Chair Michael Ignatieff
Carnegie Council congratulates Michael Ignatieff on the publication of "The Ordinary Virtues." This important book is the culmination of his Carnegie Council Centennial project, Global Ethical Dialogues, a multi-year initiative that engaged societies across the world in the quest for a global ethic--shared values with which to tackle problems that transcend national boundaries.
- Democracy and its Discontents: Resources from Carnegie Council
Carnegie Council presents a collection of recent talks and interviews on the workings of democracy; the decline of the liberal order and the rise of populism; illiberal and partial democracies; and new threats to democracy in this digital age.
- Graham Allison on "Destined for War: Can America and China Escape Thucydides’s Trap?"
Thucydides's Trap is the dangerous dynamic that occurs when a rising power threatens to displace a ruling power, explains Harvard's Graham Allison. So is war between China and the United States inevitable? No, says Allison, but both nations will have to make "painful adaptations and adjustments" to avoid it, starting with U.S. policy adjustments regarding the South China Sea and the Korean Peninsula.
- Pankaj Ghemawat on Global Strategy in the Age of Brexit and Trump
How should companies strategize in the age of "Brump" (shorthand for Brexit and Trump)? Should they think locally rather than globally? Are trade wars inevitable, and if so, how will they affect countries large and small? Don't miss this analysis from economist Pankaj Ghemawat.
- New Fellowship Program "The Living Legacy of the First World War," Led by Senior Fellow Reed Bonadonna
"The Living Legacy of the First World War" project will create up to 10 new non-resident fellowships to conduct original research and analyses on the war, its long-term impacts on societies around the world, and its lasting imprint on the present. The fellows will publish and publicly present their findings in articles and podcasts in the months leading up to Armistice Day, 2018.
- Sea Power: The History and Geopolitics of the World's Oceans
"Oceans dominate the world," says Admiral Stavridis. After all, 70 percent of the globe is covered by water. In this masterly overview of the seven seas, he touches on the maritime battles that changed history; current geopolitics from the South China Sea to the Mediterranean; and the fact that environmentally, the oceans are "the largest crime scene in the world."
- James Traub on Immigrants and Refugees
What happens when Sweden, one of the most welcoming countries on Earth for migrants, simply runs out of beds? What are the unpleasant (and politically incorrect) truths about the difficulties of assimilation in Europe? How can we have honest policy discussions about this? Author James Traub has been spending time in Sweden, France, and Germany and has given these sensitive issues much thought. Don't miss his unflinching analysis.
- The Soul of the First Amendment
In this timely event, Floyd Abrams, a noted lawyer and award-winning legal scholar specializing in First Amendment issues, examines the degree to which American law protects free speech more often, more intensely, and more controversially than is the case anywhere else in the world, including democratic nations such as Canada and England.
- Privacy in a Digital Age - Carnegie UK Trust Seminar on Future of Public Libraries
This seminar, sponsored by the Carnegie UK Trust as part of a study tour on the future of public libraries, explores privacy and the role that libraries can play in this arena. Keynote speaker Bruce Schneier paints a bleak picture of the erosion of privacy, since we are all constantly creating a data trail. Yet he declares that none of this is irreversible. It's a question of changing our laws, policies, and norms, and libraries can help.
- Carnegie Council Appoints Three New Senior Fellows
Carnegie Council for Ethics in International Affairs is pleased to welcome three new senior fellows: Alexander Görlach, German scholar on politics and religion; Richard Katz, expert on the Japanese economy and business; and Marlene Laruelle, political scientist specializing in Russia and Central Asia.
- Crisis of the Liberal Order
What explains the global resurgence of populism and the rise of political actors on the right? And what are the effects on longstanding alliances, international institutions, and accepted norms? Don't miss this lively conversation with Leon Botstein, president of Bard College, and international affairs expert Walter Russell Mead.
- Terror in France: The Rise of Jihad in the West
From January 2015 to July 2016, 239 people in France died in terrorist attacks. In this gripping talk, leading French scholar Gilles Kepel explains the causes behind this new wave of violent jihad and discusses why Europe is the main target.
- Easternization: Asia's Rise and America's Decline from Obama to Trump and Beyond
"Financial Times" chief foreign affairs commentator Gideon Rachman says, "We've reached the point where the West's grip on world affairs begins to loosen." China's economic rise is, indeed, a big reason for this shift, but how do Brexit, Crimea, and "red lines" fit into the story? What will be the effect on Southeast Asia, Australia, and Africa?
- Toward Democracy: The Struggle for Self-Rule in European and American Thought
"Democracy begins in bloodshed and it comes to life only through conflict," says Harvard's James T. Kloppenberg in this masterful talk. How have the French Revolution and civil wars in England and America "poisoned the ethic of reciprocity on which democracy depends"? Why is this so important in 2017?
- Protestants: The Faith that Made the Modern World
Understanding Protestantism is fundamental to understanding the modern world, says Professor Alec Ryrie. It has shaped democratic liberalism, capitalism, limited government, the notion of free inquiry, and continues to gain converts all over the world. How did this all blossom from Martin Luther's "Ninety-five Theses" 500 years ago?
- A Question of Order: India, Turkey, and the Return of Strongmen
Journalist Basharat Peer recounts the rise of two strongmen: Erdogan in Turkey and Modi in India. What they have in common "is a lack of concern or respect for all liberal democratic values, whether it's rule of law, dissent, freedom of expression, or the rights of minorities."
- The Lockerbie Bombing: The Search for Justice
In 1988, a bomb detonated on Pan Am 103, killing all on board and devastating the Scottish town of Lockerbie. A Libyan was convicted of the crime. His subsequent release from prison and deportation to Libya caused an international controversy. Kenny MacAskill explains his decision to release him and the complex intrigues involved in this case.
- No Place for Eritreans
Eritreans are fleeing their repressive homeland at the rate of 5,000 a month. Yet once they manage to leave, new dangers await these hapless refugees, from extortion to violence and death. How can the world turn its back?
- Pankaj Mishra on our "Age of Anger"
"I think the reason why so many people feel angry and disaffected is that too much has been promised to them in recent decades and the globalized economy has not delivered to large numbers of people on these promises," says Pankaj Mishra, in this discussion about his very timely book, "Age of Anger: A History of the Present."
- A World in Disarray: American Foreign Policy and the Crisis of the Old Order
Concerned about where the world is heading? Don't miss this measured and comprehensive overview from Richard Haas, in which he lays out the global situation facing President Trump and what may lie ahead. Topics include the Middle East, Europe, Asia, Russia, NATO, the UN, and the main factor behind job losses.
- Cultural Relations and their Effects on Politics and Economics
J. P. Singh describes himself as working at the intersection of culture and political economy, examining how ways of life and their symbolic representations bleed over into politics and economics. This discussion ranges from cultural politics in the U.S. and the UK, to Singh's book "Sweet Talk" on post-colonialism paternalism in trade deals, and more.
- Alexander Görlach on Threats to Liberal Democracy
In this wide-ranging and lively discussion, Alexander Görlach, founder of the debate magazine "The European," tackles the rise of populism and the far right in Europe, Brexit, the results of the U.S. election, the refugee crisis, and more.
- A Conversation with Robert Quinn on Scholars at Risk
Scholars at Risk provides temporary teaching positions and advisory services to hundreds of threatened scholars around the world. Quinn describes how its caseload has doubled recently, largely because of Syria and Turkey. He also discusses challenges for U.S. colleges, from fake news, to Trump's immigration policies, to free speech on campuses.
- The Populist Explosion: How the Great Recession Transformed American and European Politics
How exactly should we define populism? What led to its current resurgence in Europe and the United States, on both the right and the left? And in particular, how can we explain the Trump phenomenon? For answers, don't miss this fascinating discussion with author and journalist John Judis.
- Freedom of Expression in Ethiopia, Kenya, and Beyond
Freelance journalist Ismail Einashe sees a dangerous backsliding of democracy and free media in sub-Saharan Africa, alongside an increase in Internet access and the influence of foreign media organizations. Two weeks into the new administration, are there parallels in the United States?
- Carnegie Council and the New Administration
Other organizations will no doubt focus on analyses of leadership style, rhetoric, and political conflict. At Carnegie Council, we will focus on the ethical principles at stake in the actual policies of the new administration--specifically its foreign policy. We are following three policy areas closely: alliances, climate, and free speech.
- Europe's Last Chance: Why the European States Must Form a More Perfect Union
To avoid disaster, the EU needs to become a real federation, argues Guy Verhofstadt. "That means a small, real European government controlled by two bodies, a parliament representing the citizens and a senate representing the Member States, with a real budget, with a defense union--with everything that is needed to make the Union more effective."
- Virtual Citizenship for Refugees: A Proposal
At last, a practical, humane, and cost-effective proposal to help cope with the nearly 20 million refugees and asylum seekers worldwide, from philosophers Christian Barry and Philip Gerrans.
- Top Risks and Ethical Decisions 2017
The world is entering a geopolitical recession, i.e. an unwinding of the old global order, says political scientist Ian Bremmer, in his grimmest forecast ever. Topics include the potential challenges from a Trump administration, President Obama's legacy of a more fractured world, human rights in the Middle East, and the fate of liberalism.
- Process or End Goal: When to Begin Genocide Prevention
"This discussion ultimately will help the public to understand that preventative actions need to take place if violence is to be thwarted. We can't wait until we are in the midst of a war to resolve conflict."
- Andreas Hatzigeorgiou on Global Cities, Migration, and Stockholm's Economy
Stockholm is now the fastest growing capital in Europe, and Andreas Hatzigeorgiou brings a useful international perspective to his position as chief economist at the Stockholm Chamber of Commerce. In this wide-ranging conversation he discusses Stockholm's enormous success as a tech hub, Sweden's immigration policies, and much more.
- Foreign Fighters, Homegrown Terrorism, and the Prevention of Violent Extremism
What are the driving forces behind the increase in homegrown terrorism and what can be done to stop it? Ali Soufan and Seamus Hughes, veterans in preventing violent extremism, explain the complexities and challenges of this global threat.
- Donald Trump. . . . . Commander-in-Chief
Donald Trump is now president-elect. Despite the bitter opposition that occurred throughout the campaign, all Americans should want him to be successful. This is particularly true for his most important role as commander-in-chief, as he must deal with a variety of significant threats.
- What is Populism?
There's a wave of populist leaders around the world right now, from Erdoğan to Trump. What defines a populist exactly, and why are they so dangerous? Learn more in this most timely interview.
- Powerplay: The Origins of the American Alliance System in Asia
Why is there no NATO for Asia? After World War II, why did the United States opt for bilateral relationships with countries like Japan and South Korea? As Georgetown's Victor Cha explains, this was a "powerplay" by the Americans to contend with a "dangerous" and complex East Asia. Does this arrangement still make sense today?
- Karen Greenberg on Terrorism and "Rogue Justice"
What attracts young people to terrorism? Targeted killings, indefinite detention, mass surveillance--have Americans allowed too much power to be vested in the presidency? How are different governments grappling with the tension between civil rights and security? Security expert Karen Greenberg discusses these difficult questions.
- Free Speech: Ten Principles for a Connected World
In today's connected world--a "cosmopolis" dominated by the "four superpowers" Google, Apple, Facebook, and Amazon--what we need is to have more but also better free speech, declares Garton Ash. The West, particularly the U.S., should strive to promote global free speech, and we must foster a "robust civility" despite our differences.
- Karin Aggestam on Sweden's Feminist Foreign Policy
In 2015, the newly formed Swedish government not only declared that it was going to be a feminist government but its foreign minister, Margot Wallström, announced that it would be adopting a feminist foreign policy. What does this mean, both in theory and practice, and how are these policies working out? Lund University's Professor Aggestam explains.
- Is Successful Integration Possible? Best Practices from North America and Europe
How can societies help migrants integrate into the schools, work forces, and cultures of their new communities? In a partnership with the Government of Catalonia, this distinguished panel describes concrete ways that communities can cast aside their fears and create, as Secretary Omoros puts it, "a balance between diversity and integration."
- The UN's Peter Sutherland on the Migrant Crisis
In the run-up to the UN Summit for Refugees and Migrants, Joanne Myers talks with Peter Sutherland about the challenges of implementing the 1951 Refugee Convention, which states that the obligation to provide for refugees is not simply an obligation for countries in proximity to the refugees. It's a global responsibility that should be shared.
- U.S. Elections & Brexit: Can Liberalism Survive?
Why are liberal values eroding across the world? Will this continue? Realist Stephen Walt says maybe not, if the U.S. can set a good example at home and engage in less military interventions abroad. But although Nikolas Gvosdev of the U.S. Naval War College wants to be hopeful, he strikes a more pessimistic note.
- Greece, the Greeks, and the Crisis: Reaching Beyond "That's how it Goes"
Understandably, international attention focuses on the sufferings of migrants arriving in Greece. But what of the Greeks themselves? Though largely invisible to tourists, the country's multiple economic and social problems include a suicide epidemic and an increase in homelessness. What's particularly worrying is that this is now "the new normal."
- Update from Ukraine
Dr. Petro discusses the violence in Crimea, and Ukraine's economic and political stalemate. For long-term stability, Ukraine has to reconcile with Russia, he says. "There's simply no way that Ukraine can prosper with a perpetual enemy on its borders."
- Foreign Affairs & U.S. History Materials, Curated for High School Teachers by a Teacher
The new Worksheets & Excerpts section of Carnegie Council's online educational resources includes material useful for comparative government, world history, and U.S. history courses, and is specially designed for high school teachers.
- Strangers in Strange Lands: Migration
In 2015, the number of international migrants worldwide—people residing in a country other than their country of birth—reached a record-breaking 244 million. And 65.3 million of these migrants were refugees, the largest number since World War II. We present a collection of useful resources on the ethical and practical challenges of migration.
- Buyers' Remorse?
Internationalist and Scot David Speedie reflects on Brexit: what happened, how it happened, and what the ramifications will be for Britain and beyond. Is this the beginning of a great unraveling?
- A World History of Political Violence
Rachel Kleinfeld discusses with Devin Stewart her research--which took her to five continents over the past three years--and forthcoming book on how violence is perpetuated and curtailed in societies around the world. Kleinfeld discusses the role of political power, corruption, law enforcement, leadership, and grassroots movements.
- The Needs of Refugee Women and Children in the Global Humanitarian Crisis
In this powerful talk, executive director Sarah Costa explains the work of the Women's Refugee Commission, and discusses the current crisis. The numbers are staggering: one in 122 people across the world have been forced to flee, and the majority are women and children. The average length of displacement is 20 years. What can be done to help?
- Move Over, Black Swan: Here Comes the Gray Rhino
Black swans are unforeseeable, but gray rhinos are the looming threats right in front of our noses that we choose to ignore, says policy analyst Michele Wucker. Her top five rhinos right now are: the fragmentation of the EU; liquidity shocks in the financial markets; political instability in the U.S.; climate change; and the Middle East.
- The July NATO Warsaw Summit: How Will NATO Adapt to a New Security Environment?
Today NATO must protect itself from Russian threats on its Eastern borders and ISIS to the South, plus terrorism and cyber attacks, while also managing the flow of migration and patrolling the seas. Therefore the upcoming NATO summit in Warsaw is of paramount importance.
- Integration and the European Migration "Crisis"
How we treat the millions arriving in Europe will affect all our futures, writes migration expert Jenny Phillimore. "We can genuinely welcome people, accept them as part of our world, support them to have the same opportunities as us, and adapt to our increased diversity, or we can exclude them and await the social and economic consequences."
- The Invention of Russia: The Journey from Gorbachev's Freedom to Putin's War
When the Soviet Union fell 25 years ago, Gorbachev spoke of "living in a new world" where Russia would no longer interfere in other countries' affairs. What happened? In this riveting talk, Russia expert Arkady Ostrovsky analyzes the powerful role of the media, noting that Putin did an extraordinary thing: "he merged security services with the media."
- "We Love Death as You Love Life": Britain's Suburban Terrorists
What drives people in the UK to become terrorists or jihadist fighters? Pantucci's years of research into this problem has implications for all Western countries. Most disturbingly, he concludes that there is no single profile. However, there are three factors to look for: a sense of grievance, social mobilization, and ideology.
- Ukraine Update
David Speedie discusses with Dr. Nicolai Petro the situation in Ukraine--political, economic, and the growing civil conflict between East and West--two years into the Poroshenko presidency.
- Return to Cold War
Columbia's Robert Legvold argues that the United States and Russia are, indeed, in a new Cold War with plenty of blame for both sides. And despite its economic and military decline, he says that Russia is still the most important nation when it comes to U.S. foreign policy. Can the two states find a way forward?
- The Symbiotic Relationship between Western Media and Terrorism
Mass media and terrorism have become ever more intertwined in a mutually beneficial relationship often described as 'symbiotic.' This column examines that dynamic and outlines the need for news organizations to balance the public's right to know against the ability of militants to exploit news coverage to promote their beliefs.
- Chuck Hagel on U.S. Challenges in Today's "Complicated, Interconnected World"
Drawing on decades of experience, Secretary Hagel gives a masterly and frank analysis of world events. He discusses current U.S. politics--he's confident that the Constitution will see America through--the nuclear deal with Iran, the melting in the Arctic and resulting "Great Game of the North," China's power play in the South China Sea, and much more.
- The Fifth Annual Moscow Conference on International Security
David Speedie attended this important three-day conference and reports that "a global array of speakers articulated a corresponding range of country/area-specific concerns, much of which was familiar but nevertheless important to hear." There were more than 600 official delegates from 83 countries--the most notable absentees being the U.S. and the UK.
- Michael Ignatieff named president of Budapest's Central European University
Carnegie Council Centennial Chair Michael Ignatieff has been appointed president and rector of Central European University in Budapest.The graduate university, started by philanthropist George Soros in 1991, attracts students from all over the world and was founded to be "a beacon for open society values in Eastern Europe," said Ignatieff.
- Us and Them? Bridget Anderson on Migrants and Nation-States
Underlying people's economic fears about migrants taking their jobs are much deeper anxieties about nationality, culture, and race, says Bridget Anderson, professor of migration and citizenship at Oxford. The nation-state is simply not working for a lot of humanity, and we need to come up with new ways of thinking about political communities.
- The Last Supper: The Plight of Christians in Arab Lands
There are 7.5 million Christians in the Middle East, who live under constant threat of death and humiliation. Danish journalist Klaus Wivel (not a Christian himself) asks: What is the story on the ground and why are so few journalists covering it? Why aren't we in the West doing more to defend the human rights of this beleaguered minority?
- New Paradigms for Refugee Camps and for Humanitarian Aid Itself
Kilian Kleinschmidt describes how he, together with the refugees themselves, transformed the Zaatari refugee camp from what the media called a "hellhole of humanitarian aid" into a lively living space with shops and even fountains. Indeed, the entire aid paradigm needs to be transformed, says Kleinschmidt, and he offers innovative ways to do it.
- Eurasianism and the European Far Right: Book Launch and Update on Events in Europe
"Eurasianism and the European Far Right" is the culmination of an intensive two-year project spearheaded by the Council's U.S. Global Engagement Program. This expert panel from France, Hungary, and the United States examines the complex spectrum of the European far right and its connections with Russia and with the U.S.
- Legacies and Prospects of Joint Criminal Enterprises in Europe
In March 2016, former Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic was convicted of genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes. Of course, this is a positive step. Yet punishing individuals while preserving the culture and society that allowed them to commit crimes in the first place seems close to pointless.
- Instagram Take-Over #5: Rob Pinney, "The Jungle" Migrant Camp, Calais
For its fifth Instagram take-over by photographers from around the world, Carnegie Council presents photos by Rob Pinney. For the past six months he has focused on the unfolding crisis in "The Jungle"—the migrant encampment outside Calais, France, which has become a temporary dwelling spot for migrants waiting to enter other parts of Europe.
- Refugees on Turkey's Borders: Consequences of Chaos in Syria
Over 4.8 million Syrians have become refugees, mostly in neighboring countries, and this is not the only displacement crisis around the globe, says Kirişci, an expert in Turkish foreign policy and migration studies. This troubling and informative talk raises both practical and ethical issues, not only for Turkey and its neighbors but for the entire world.
- Blood Year: The Unraveling of Western Counterterrorism
ISIS consists of three interlocked threats and is quite different from al-Qaeda, says counterterrorism authority David Kilcullen. To come up with a workable strategy going forward, we have to understand exactly what went wrong in the years since 9/11 and admit that everyone bears part of the blame, from "reckless" Bush to "feckless" Obama.
- "Conflict in Ukraine: The Unwinding of the Post–Cold War International Order" by Rajan Menon and Eugene Rumer
Rajan Menon and Eugene Rumer try to make sense of the Ukraine crisis for a general audience. The book's major contribution lies in its attempt to provide what the authors term a "first cut at explaining the context, causes, and consequences" of a crisis that is still very much underway.
- Table of Contents, Volume 30.1 (Spring 2016)
This issue includes an essay by Amitai Etzioni on how to define national sovereignty through rights and responsibilities; a roundtable on the relationship between Hans Morgenthau and America, with contributions by Cornelia Navari, Felix Rösch, Hartmut Behr, Christoph Frei, Richard Ned Lebow, and Douglas B. Klusmeyer; features by Patti Tamara Lenard on revocation of citizenship in democracies and by Robert Sparrow on the case against autonomous weapons; a response by Helen Frowe to Daniel Brunstetter and Megan Braun's article on "jus ad vim" (EIA 27.1), with a rejoinder by Daniel Brunstetter; and book reviews by Robert Howse and Jeffrey Mankoff.
- Free for a Limited Time! "Ethics & International Affairs" Spring 2016 Issue
This issue includes: Amitai Etzioni on national sovereignty; a roundtable on the relationship between Hans Morgenthau and America; Patti Tamara Lenard on revocation of citizenship in democracies; Robert Sparrow on the case against autonomous weapons; an exchange between Helen Frowe and Daniel Brunstetter on "jus ad vim;" and book reviews.
- Instagram Take-Over #4: Rena Effendi; Migrants, Greek-Macedonian (FYROM) Border
For its fourth Instagram take-over by photographers from around the world, Carnegie Council presents Rena Effendi's moving photos of migrants along the Greek-Macedonian (FYROM) border. Effendi grew up in Azerbaijan and living through her country's path to independence during the chaotic '90s has strongly influenced her work.
- The Refugee/Migrant Crisis
The migrant/refugee crisis is a defining moral issue for our generation, declares Peter Sutherland, UN special representative on international migration. And proximity should not define responsibility. It's a global responsibility.
- Update on Ukraine
David Speedie discusses the situation in Ukraine with Nicolai Petro, including the political crisis for the governing party in Kiev, the situation in Eastern Ukraine, and the state of the Minsk accords.
- Beyond a New Cold War? International Security and the Need for U.S.-Russia Cooperation
The United States must stop its demonization of President Putin, according to members of this distinguished panel, all with long associations with Russia and all founding members of the American Committee for East-West Accord. Syria, Ukraine, the UN, nuclear weapons: compelling reasons why the United States and Russia must work together.
- In Europe's Shadow: Two Cold Wars and a Thirty-Year Journey Through Romania and Beyond
"What is Europe? Where is it going in this current crisis?" The answers are all here, from what Kaplan describes as the redivision of Europe into two Cold War halves over Russia's involvement in Ukraine, to the enduring importance of historical imperial borders, to Europe's urgent need for structural economic reform--and much more.
- Interview with Thomas Weiss on Change and Continuity in Global Governance
The term global governance grew up to describe the fact that there is an increasing number of civil society actors. Nevertheless, these new actors are not going to solve terrorism; they're not going to halt mass atrocities; they're not going to halt Ebola. States are still the main actors and they must be pushed and shoved by all the rest to take effective action.
- Human Rights in Asia and the West
The geographical, national, or ethnic East-West division in human rights thinking is increasingly irrelevant. Instead, multiple layers of horizontal solidarity have been formed through global networks, and liberals in both regions have been significantly marginalized.
- Values and the Ethics of International Order
At a time when U.S. primacy is in doubt, when many are concerned that China might become a global political power, when the threat of radical Islam goes hand in hand with anti-Western attitudes, the question of the right repertoire of values, along with the legitimacy and ethics of the international order, could not be more important.
- The Unprecedented Jihadi Threat in Europe
"At this very moment, ISIS is recruiting probably 100 people a week from all over the world, including this very country. So it is not a European problem, it is not an Arab issue; it is a global threat and global challenge. That is why I insist on the fact that the threat has to be dealt with at the source, which is basically Syria."
- Winners of the 2015 International Student Photo Contest on Climate Change
Carnegie Council congratulates the winners of the 2015 International Student Photo Contest. The topic was climate change. We asked contestants to send us examples of climate change OR examples of combating or adapting to climate change. See all the winning photos here.
- Winter is Coming: Why Vladimir Putin and the Enemies of the Free World Must be Stopped
Garry Kasparov is an outspoken critic of Vladimir Putin's authoritarianism, but he is equally critical of the United States and its allies for their unwillingness to confront Moscow. In this fascinating discussion, he and journalist Robert Kaiser grapple with complex and difficult questions about Russia and the "free world," and what we mean by a moral foreign policy.
- Top Risks and Ethical Decisions 2016
Eurasia Group's Ian Bremmer discusses the top political risks for 2016 and gives a stark warning for the year ahead. Touching on the Saudi-Iranian tensions, China's footprint, and the eroding trans-Atlantic alliance, Bremmer says, "This is very likely to be the most dangerous year of geopolitical risk we have experienced since we started this process."
- Bearing Witness to War and Injustice: Ron Haviv, Photojournalist
From the Balkan Wars to both invasions of Iraq to the current refugee crisis, photojournalist Ron Haviv has been at the center of many of the world's most dangerous conflicts over the last three decades. In this fascinating talk, Haviv walks us through some of his most striking photographs and discusses the complicated ethics of being a journalist in a war zone.
- Top 10 Carnegie Council Resources for 2015
Russia, human rights, energy, business ethics—these were among the most popular topics our varied audiences accessed this year. Check out the most popular podcasts and web resources from 2015.
- Will China Promote Autocracy along its New Silk Road?
China's ambitious "One Belt One Road" project is planned to span across Asia, the Middle East, Europe, and Africa. It's estimated that it will affect the lives of 4.4 billion people and generate $2.1 trillion in gross production. Is this the beginning of a sinocentric "New Asian Order"--and would that be such a bad thing?
- The State of the European Union: Challenges for the Future
Yes, says former EU Commission president José Manuel Barroso, the European Union is facing extraordinary challenges. But the EU also possesses extraordinary resilience and resources. Unlike many, Barroso is very optimistic about its future.
- Suchitra Vijayan on the Politics and Rhetoric of the Refugee Crisis
The co-founder of the Resettlement Legal Aid Project in Cairo during the Iraq War, Suchitra Vijayan discusses the refugee crisis from a legal, political, and humanitarian point of view. She details the remarkable empathy needed to work in the field and why the United States and Europe have an ethical responsibility to respond to the situation.
- Beyond Paris: The Refugee Crisis in Europe
"Closing borders in the West will not only worsen the already unimaginable human rights disaster that asylum seekers are facing, but it will also add fuel to the Eurosceptics' fire as they work to destabilize the European Union. And this is all compounded by the fact that closing borders doesn't work."
- Why France Should Not Close Its Borders
Since September 11, 2001, both the U.S. and Europe have merged anti-terrorism strategies with immigration policy, and with little success.
- The Global Refugee Crisis
How can Christian leaders help Europe cope with the flood of refugees? Renowned Czech theologian Father Tomàš Halik argues that Christianity, especially the Catholic Church, can be an effective mediator between Islam and Europe's secular humanists, as it has many values in common with both.
- The Aging of the Cuban Embargo and the Coming Era in U.S.-Latin American Relations
The decades-long U.S.trade embargo is still in force, yet meanwhile time has not stood still for Cuba. Lynn Holland looks at Cuba's network of overseas alliances, which range from trade to education, medical diplomacy, and peacekeeping. She goes on to discuss areas of fruitful cooperation between the U.S. and Cuba.
- The Putin Worldview, Russia in Syria, and the Ukraine Elections
Professor Nicolai Petro was one of a few American experts to attend the Valdai Discussion Club, an annual conference in Moscow on Russia's foreign policy attended by President Vladimir Putin. Here, Petro discusses Putin's worldview and the Russian military intervention in Syria and analyzes the recent elections in Ukraine.
- Pope Francis Among the Wolves: The Inside Story of a Revolution
Francis is the first pope who wasn't born in a village, says Vatican expert Marco Politi, but in a mega-city with many social-economic levels and faiths. "This explains why when he speaks he doesn't speak only to Catholics, not only to Christians. He speaks beyond religious borders. He speaks to men and women as they are in contemporary society."
- NATO in the 21st Century: Addressing New and Urgent Challenges
NATO is now in its third historical phase, says U.S. Ambassador to NATO Douglas Lute in this informative, useful talk. "There is now a sense that NATO faces maybe not just one threat, a newly aggressive, newly assertive Russia, but also concerns from the Southeast with ISIS and potentially from instability in the South across the Mediterranean as well."
- Carnegie Council Announces the Publication of "Eurasianism and the European Far Right: Reshaping the Europe–Russia Relationship"
Carnegie Council is pleased to announce the publication of Eurasianism and the European Far Right, which marks the culmination of an intensive, two-year project spearheaded by the Council's U.S. Global Engagement Program (USGE).
- Clip of the Month: Martin Wolf on the Full Extent of the Eurozone Crisis
Just how bad was the eurozone crisis? "Financial Times" columnist Martin Wolf, one of the world's most respected and incisive economic commentators, says that it was "unbelievably costly in aggregate" and the crisis-hit countries of Italy, Greece, Spain, and Portugal have suffered "at least a lost decade." He also provides an update on where these countries are now and what vulnerabilities remain.
- Is the Eurozone Crisis Over?
Economist Martin Wolf lays out the three enormous problems Europe faces today: relations with Russia; a possible Brexit; and the migration crisis. He goes on to analyze Europe's economic situation, declaring that the 2008 crash resulted in well over a lost decade, and the economic and political repercussions will be felt for many more years to come.
- Democracy as Myth and Fact
"Do democracies have the capacity to adjust? Can they expand their ideas of national interest to tackle collective challenges? Can they function in ways that serve the weak as well as the strong? I am an optimist. But the results are not certain."
- Refugee Mass Exodus: Need for a UN-led World Conference
"Only a UN-led world conference with adequate research and prior broad discussion can meet the challenges of worldwide migration and continuing refugee flows. This year's UN General Assembly would be a most appropriate time to pass a resolution to organize such a UN-led world conference."
- Russia's Soft Power: A Matter for Church and State
If other countries wish to understand Russia, they need to have a grasp of her values, which provide the moral framework for her policies and world view. In this fascinating discussion, three leading experts on Russia's "soft power" explain the roles of the state and the Russian Orthodox Church and their complex interplay in formulating this framework.
- Ethics on Film: Discussion of "Schindler's List"
It's almost impossible to grasp the enormity of the Holocaust, and there's also the danger of regarding it as a one-time occurrence in the distant past. "Schindler's List" is a powerful tool for teaching about the Holocaust, genocide, good and evil, and the question of individual accountability. "What would I have done?" "What am I doing now to stop injustice?"
- Global Tax Avoidance: Who's Responsible?
We investigate the complex world of tax avoidance, starting with the mining industry in Zambia. Activists, documentarians, and economists give perspectives on how corporations avoid taxes and how this practice is now entrenched in business and government.
- Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action on Iran: Assessment and Prospects
Professor Gary Sick, Iran expert at Columbia University and lead White House negotiator during the 1979 Iran hostage crisis, assesses the merits of the recently negotiated agreement on Iran's nuclear program and the prospects for the upcoming vote in Congress.
- Bringing Ukraine Back Into Focus: How to End the New Cold War and Provide Effective Political Assistance to Ukraine
Peacemaking efforts in Ukraine have failed because two crises must be addressed simultaneously. The first is the crisis within Ukraine over whether it should be a monocultural or bicultural nation. The second is the crisis in Russian relations with the West. The key is viewing Russia as part of the solution, rather than as the problem.
- Solidarity or Self-interest? European Integration and the German Question
"Germany today is earnest in its desire to be a good European neighbor, but it does not believe that it can or should pay any cost as part of this role," writes David Miles. "One problem is that economic, not ethical values have become the lodestone of the European Union."
- Seventy Years after Hiroshima: Nuclear Weapons, 2015
Seventy years after the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, nuclear weapons remain one of the greatest dangers we face. What is the situation today, given that the world has an estimated 15,700 nuclear weapons? Carnegie Council presents a selection of resources on this crucial topic.
- "Soft Power": The Values that Shape Russian Foreign Policy
In the increasingly frigid environment of U.S.-Russia relations, much attention is given to what may be seen as Russia's strategic "interests." Of at least equal significance for understanding Russian attitudes, however, is a grasp of the values, the moral framework for Russia's foreign policy.
- When CEOs Become Activists
Corporate leaders' influence reaches beyond the walls of their businesses. How do they use that power, and what are the ethical, business, and political consequences? Discover how BP's John Browne and Shell's Mark Moody-Stuart influenced politics in oil-producing countries and how Browne and Apple's Tim Cook weighed in on LGBT issues. *This podcast was amended on August 3, 2015; see transcript.
- Ukraine and the Future of Reforms
In May 2015, a time of crisis not only for Ukraine but also for the future of the entire EU, Cloud and Gvosdev went to Lithuania, Poland, Germany, and Belgium and had frank discussions on Ukraine with former and current government officials and think-tank representatives, and with EU officials in Brussels. Here are their findings.
- Eighteen Months On: Post-Maidan Ukraine
Professor Nicolai Petro was a Fulbright scholar in Odessa, southern Ukraine, for a year in the aftermath of the Maidan revolution. In Odessa once again, he offers his impressions of the economic, political, and security situations in Ukraine today.
- U.S.-Russia Relations: Critical and Unstable
"What was a troubled relationship is now on life support, and the deterioration has taken place in the most existentially perilous area of arms control, specifically nuclear weapons," says David Speedie. How can the United States and Russia move from "zero-sum" to "constructive engagement"?
- Europe's Muslims: Challenges and Misconceptions
Months after the "Charlie Hebdo" attacks, questions remain about Europe's Muslims. How strong is the lure of al-Qaeda and ISIS for youth in France or the UK? Why do so many, including those born and raised in affluent European states, feel disconnected from society? For a nuanced analysis of these misunderstood communities, watch this video.
- Agenda for the Future: Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights
"Our planet is indivisible. There is no longer such a thing as a small, faraway country. No such thing as an acceptable level of discrimination, against any group." Don't miss this moving speech by UN High Commissioner Al Hussein, which covers all aspects of the universal principles of human rights, including the current refugee crisis.
- Migrant Deaths Worldwide
There is no going back to a world in which migration can be prevented. The only solution to the global crisis of migrant deaths is to merge humanitarian efforts to aid and rescue migrants with coordinated, cooperative efforts to open safe, long-term migration channels throughout regions, and even the world.
- Towards Non-Western Histories in International Relations Textbooks
"Exceptionalism" and many other concepts didn't originate solely in the West, yet most international relations textbooks continue to focus on Western history when outlining the evolution of the international order. Francis Grice shows what a lopsided, misleading worldview this is, and suggests how to move towards providing truly global histories.
- Teaching About Intractable Conflicts: The Olive Tree Initiative
How can students learn to think more critically about conflicted regions and to engage people with different views in constructive dialogue? The Olive Tree Initiative combines a short study trip to a conflicted region, rigorous study both pre- and post-trip, and close mentorship that focuses on leadership development.
- Blueprint for Revolution: How to Use Rice Pudding, Lego Men, and Other Nonviolent Techniques to Galvanize Communities, Overthrow Dictators, or Simply Change the World
In the late 1990s, using humor, irony, and imagination, Popovic and his friends toppled Serbian dictator Milošević. They went on to found CANVAS, which now advises activists in more than 15 countries. Popovic explains that nonviolent struggle is a teachable skill, and that nonviolence is not only the most ethical, but the most successful path to revolution.
- Are We At War With Islam?
In Europe, both non-Muslims and Muslims need to honestly confront and contend with the stereotypes, anxieties, and resentments they have about each other, says Professor Cesari in this probing conversation on Muslims in Europe.
- Juan Cole on Europe's Muslims and More
In this enlightening conversation, Professor Cole, an expert in relations between the Muslim world and the West, gives an on-the-ground perspective on the Iran nuclear talks and the reaction to them in the Arab world, Muslims in Europe, Yemen, ISIS, and much more.
- Ethical Systems Design: Bringing Behavioral Science Into Corporate Life
This is the first in a series of podcasts in collaboration with EthicalSystems.org to explore behavioral science in the workplace. In this installment, we're turning to the financial industry, specifically Deutsche Bank and the Federal Reserve, to explore how the financial system is beginning to apply behavioral economics to incentivize ethical decision-making and foster internal ethical cultures.
- The Eleventh Hour: The Legacy and the Lessons of World War I
One hundred years after the First World War, boundaries established after the armistice at the "eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month" still shape many of today's conflicts, from ISIS's invasion of Mosul to Boko Haram's kidnapping of schoolgirls. What lessons have we learned from WWI? Just as important, what have we still not learned?
- The United States, Russia, and Ukraine: Report from Moscow
Dmitri Trenin, director of Carnegie Endowment's Moscow Center, served in the Soviet and Russian military for two decades and understands both the Russian and U.S. points of view. He warns that U.S.-Russia relations are heading for a new version of the Cold War, and also discusses the Russian economy and its relations with China and other countries.
- Patients with Passports: Medical Tourism, Law, and Ethics
Medical tourism is big business, involving millions of patients who travel abroad to get health care. Some travel to avoid queues and save money. Others seek services that are illegal in their own country, such as abortions and surrogate pregnancies. As Cohen explains, this growing industry opens a Pandora's box of legal and ethical questions.
- Killing and Cartoons
This year Paris and Copenhagen learned that there are still people willing to kill for cartoons. The dilemma of what to think about their publication remains. What to do? Moral philosopher David Rodin tackles the difficult questions surrounding free speech in liberal societies.
- Then and Now: Eight Lingering Questions on U.S.-Russia-Ukraine
In March 2014, David Speedie posed eight questions on the Ukraine crisis. With an ongoing civil war in Ukraine some 15 months after the Maidan rebellion and overthrow of Ukraine's elected president, it seems time for eight new questions reflective of the ongoing crisis, and of the consequent relentless downward spiral in U.S.-Russia relations.
- Ukraine: The New Cuban Missile Crisis?
"There can be no military solution to the war in Ukraine, only a political one," says Carnegie Council Global Ethics Fellow Rajan Menon, co-author of "Conflict in Ukraine: The Unwinding of the Post-Cold War Order." "And sending arms to Ukraine to gain political leverage against Russia will set back prospects for a solution."
- Flashpoints: The Emerging Crisis in Europe
"Europe has always been a place of conflict and malice and anger and hatred, between classes and between nations. The question now is, can it be contained? I doubt it very much. The period from 1992 to 2008 was an interregnum, and an unnatural one. Europe is returning to itself, and when Europe gets sick, the world gets sick with it."
- Clip of the Month: George Friedman on the Essential European Problem
Stratfor founder and chairman George Friedman says that German reliance on exports and illegal entrepreneurism in Greece and other less affluent European economies, in large part, led to the debt crisis.
- Romania: On the Edge of a Democratic Cliff?
Responding to Teo Stan's article written just before Romania's November 2014 elections, Patrick Basham argues that unfortunately, Stan was over-optimistic. "On the ground in Romania, the opposite of Stan's forecast is happening. Democratic institutions are under threat and the forces of democracy are in retreat."
- Extreme Political Parties in Greece: Economic and Cultural Factors
"There has been, in the period of the last 30 years especially, a breakdown of trust, not only between the governed and the government, but also between Greeks, among themselves." Palaiologos, a prominent Greek scholar-journalist, analyzes how Greece went wrong, the rise of extremist parties on both right and left, and what needs to be done.
- Top Risks and Ethical Decisions 2015
"The world in 2015 looks a lot more dangerous, a lot more vulnerable," says global political risk specialist Ian Bremmer in his annual forecast. He notes that while the United States and China, the world's largest and second-largest economies, are doing better economically, the global environment is geopolitically much worse.
- Cuba's Pivotal Role on the World Stage
One might not think that a small island like Cuba could play a critical role in world politics. Yet the circumstances of Obama's decision to restore diplomatic relations with Cuba should prompt us to see the country in a new light. We should examine the role of Russia in this event, as well as the repercussions in the rest of Latin America.
- Unaccountable: Janine Wedel on how Elite Power Brokers have Corrupted the U.S. System
Anthropologist Janine Wedel exposes America's "new corruption"--the unprecedented ways that many politicians, retired generals, academics, bankers, and physicians exploit their prestige and insider knowledge.
- Outpost: Life on the Frontlines of American Diplomacy
Former ambassador Hill has worked on some of the most dangerous and difficult problems in U.S. diplomacy, from the Balkans, to North Korea, to Iraq. In this astute and often funny talk, he gives an inside look at his work as a diplomat, and also discusses the latest crises, from ISIS and Syria, to Ukraine and dealing with Russia.
- From "Indispensable Nation" to "Realism-Based Restraint": Reconsidering U.S. Engagement with the World
Former ambassador Chas Freeman has had a wide breadth of diplomatic experience, from the Middle East to Africa, East Asia, and Europe. In this conversation he eloquently speaks his mind on the negative effects of sanctions, the folly of U.S. unqualified support for Israel, the U.S. strategy and diplomacy deficits, and much more.
- A Conversation with Will Kymlicka on the Challenges of Multiculturalism
From Canada to Europe, how do different societies deal with immigrant groups? How have their policies evolved and where are they headed? What rights should domestic animals have? Will Kymlicka ably shows that the world is going through a rights revolution, demolishing the old hierarchies and gradually becoming more and more inclusive.
- On the Verge of Democratic Consolidation: The Romanian Presidential Elections
It was David against Goliath in the Romanian presidential elections, and David won! For valuable background, read Teodor Stan's in-depth analysis of the complex political situation in his native country, written just before the election.
- Global Ethics and the Point of View of the Universe
Sidgwick's concept of looking at issues from "the point of view of the universe"--in other words, giving equal weight to everyone's interests, irrespective of who they are, now or in future--can be the basis for a global ethic, says utilitarian philosopher Peter Singer. He goes on to explain what this means for all of us in practical, concrete terms.
- From Paris to Moscow: The Rise of New Far-Right Movements Across Europe
What effect has the Ukraine crisis had on the rise of ultra-nationalist forces in Russia and what has been the impact on Russia's neighbors? What is the situation among Europe's different far-right movements? Russia/Eurasia/Europe expert Marlene Laruelle has answers to these complex questions and more.
- The Shifts and the Shocks: What We've Learned--and Have Still to Learn--From the Financial Crisis
Why did the 2008 financial crisis occur? What should it teach us about modern economies and economics? Martin Wolf does a masterly job of untangling this complex catastrophe and proposes how we can avoid repeating our past mistakes.
- Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalization of Democracy
What are the requirements for a liberal democracy? It's not just voting, says Fukuyama. It needs a distinction between public and private interest; rule of law; and accountability. Although the U.S. started off as a weak, corrupt state, it became a liberal democracy. Yet all political systems are subject to decay, and that's what's happening to the U.S. today.
- The Ottoman Road to War: Mustafa Aksakal on the Ottomans' Fateful Decision
Why did the Ottoman Empire side with Germany in World War I? It was a rational decision, given the circumstances at the time, argues Aksakal. But it brought down the empire and violently reshaped the region's borders at horrifying human cost. Indeed, WWI informs national identities even today.
- Elite Perceptions of the United States in Europe and Asia
An interesting new report finds that political and business leaders in Asia value U.S. hard power while Europeans focus on American values. Both, however, view U.S. business and entrepreneurial spirit more positively than the government. What do these attitudes mean for policymakers and civil society?
- Foreign Fighters in Syria
How is ISIS structured? Why are young Muslims from many countries going to Syria to join it? What is the nature and extent of the threat and how can it be overcome? Counterintelligence expert Richard Barrett (formerly with MI5, MI6, and the UN) gives an informative, balanced, and perceptive report. Don't miss it.
- How to Prevent Another Great Recession
First, there will definitely be another recession, says Ay. As long as people make free economic decisions, they will make mistakes. But it's important to understand the fundamental reasons behind the recent subprime crisis. She goes on to discuss financial regulation, loan securitization, and the pitfalls of encouraging home ownership.
- Climate Change and the Future of Humanity
Climate change is already here. The seas are rising, the glaciers are melting, and the atmosphere is warming. How can we work together to set a different course for humanity?
- Big Data, Virginia Woolf, and the Right to be Forgotten
As a society, we're still developing vocabulary to talk about data technology and the moral questions it raises. In this first of a series of podcasts on data and privacy, we’ll explore how big data is used and the underlying moral questions that impact how our global economy--and society--develops in this world of increasingly data-driven commerce.
- World War to a Global Ethic
"We come here—100 years to the day from the calamitous events of the summer of 1914—to remember, to take stock, and to recommit to the ideals passed on to us by Andrew Carnegie and others. The Carnegie ideal was simple but audacious: it is indeed realistic and possible to use reason and experience to improve the ways in which we live."
- Was World War I Inevitable?
We're still trying to understand what World War I meant. It is a very complex event, one that has echoes into the present, and we've all been thinking recently about parallels between that world and our own world. One of the very important things is not to start by assuming that it was inevitable.
- Religion in War and Reconciliation
"There is a long way to go before religious communities become more of a resource for reducing rather than a source for increasing antagonism. But to move in that direction clearly requires greater understanding at the local level."
- Legal and Moral International Norms Since 1914
"What lessons has humankind learned from the events of 1914 in Sarajevo? And are there further lessons that we should have learned, but didn't? Have our legal and moral norms changed (hopefully for the better) in the years since?"
- War and Reconciliation in the Twentieth-Century Balkans
What are the remedies for the endless cycles of violence in the Balkans? Croatian historian Ivo Banac examines various solutions that have been tried and found wanting, to some extent, and concludes with another possibility.
- Sarajevo Panel Discussion
In this wide-ranging conversation, participants from the Sarajevo Symposium discuss the past, present, and future of the former Yugoslav states with a focus on Bosnia and Herzegovina. How can private citizens and governments work together to build a more pluralistic society?
- Sarajevo Symposium, Closing Remarks
"We have all got to live with each other. There will be Serbs here in a thousand years, Croats here in a thousand years. We're stuck with each other. We don't have to love each other. This is not a council of brotherhood and unity. We did that. It didn't go so well. It's just a council of deep individual responsibility for ourselves as historical agents in time."
- Ukraine and the New Divide between the United States and Russia
David Speedie interviews Dr. Dmitri Trenin, director of the Carnegie Moscow Center of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, on how the Ukraine crisis has opened a new fissure in the relationship between the United States and Russia.
- Sarajevo: Perspectives from a Carnegie New Leader
Conor Moran, a member of the Carnegie Council Centennial delegation, shares some complex thoughts on the city of Sarajevo and the nation of Bosnia and Herzegovina 100 years after World War I and 20 years after the Yugoslav Wars. How can this part of the world move on from its troubled history?
- Helpless Bosnia and Its Women, 20 Years After Ethnic War
Carnegie Council Trustee Barbara Crossette looks at courageous women who have gone from victims of the Bosnian War (1992-1995) to heroines. Yet many foresee a potential worsening of Bosnia's political situation, a bleak prospect all Bosnians, especially Bosnia's women.
- Carnegie's Vision for Peace: WNYC's Brian Lehrer Interviews Joel Rosenthal
On the eve of the 100th anniversary of World War I, Carnegie Council President Joel Rosenthal discusses the legacy of Andrew Carnegie, who thought that international arbitration would eventually put an end to war. We haven't reached that point yet, but are we more peaceful than we were 100 years ago?
- Toward Understanding Our World's Moral Landscape: Carnegie Council's Centennial Projects on a "Global Ethic"
As part of its Centennial activities, Carnegie Council launched several projects, including the Global Ethical Dialogues and Thought Leaders Forum, to explore the concept of a "global ethic." Senior Fellow Devin Stewart writes on the highlights from these two projects, including what leading thinkers believe to be the greatest ethical challenges.
- Modern Europe's Roma: Still Denied Social Justice
Despite sustained EU efforts to develop a vigorous Roma inclusion policy, the vast majority of the 10–12 million strong European Roma remain severely marginalized, frequent targets of violence, and mired in entrenched poverty. How can we ensure that the EU does indeed become a fierce defender of human rights for all those who live within its borders?
- July 1914: Sean McMeekin on the Outbreak of World War I
Would Europe have gone to war had Franz Ferdinand survived his visit to Bosnia? What were the blunders and miscalculations on all sides that fateful July 1914? Read historian Sean McMeekin's take.
- We Have a Plan: From Sarajevo to Baghdad
How should we mark the 100th anniversary of the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the event that led to WWI? Here in Sarajevo, remembering its tragic history at both the beginning and end of the 20th century, it's clear that passivity in the face of instability is not an answer. But it's equally clear that we should be humble about remedies.
- The Participation Gap
"Inequality doesn't result only from differences in income or wealth (the focus of French economist Thomas Piketty). It also has a political dimension, fueled by unequal access to power and the norm that all citizens deserve an equal voice."
- Lawrence in Arabia: War, Deceit, Imperial Folly and the Making of the Modern Middle East
How did the Arab Revolt and Lawrence of Arabia shape the Middle East? And how are Lawrence's actions of a century ago still being felt today?
- Cataclysm: David Stevenson on World War I as Political Tragedy
David Stevenson discusses the military and political decisions on both sides that led to World War I; the Eastern, Balkan, and Italian Fronts, which are often overlooked; the role of the colonies for the Allies; and much more.
- The Crisis of 1914 and What It Means for Us Today
On June 28, 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria was murdered in Sarajevo, an event that led to World War I. To commemorate this event and look to the future, the Council is holding a high-profile symposium in Sarajevo on June 27, 2014, which will discuss war and reconciliation.
- The Naked Future: What Happens in a World That Anticipates Your Every Move?
Today we create information in everything that we do, and there is no going back. But instead of seeing this as as a threat, we should seize the opportunity to use it to our advantage, says Patrick Tucker. Big data can improve our lives, offering everything from more informed consumer choices to more accurate and detailed medical data.
- The Last Empire: The Final Days of the Soviet Union
Serhii Plokhy presents a bold new interpretation of the Soviet Union's final months, which places Ukraine at the center of the drama. And by providing the historical background for what is happening now, he shows that there are many key points linking 1991 to today.
- The European Parliament Elections and Rise of the Far Right: Three Reasons for Reassurance, Three for Concern
The European Parliament election results are in, and the ominous has become the grim reality. Fueled by high unemployment across the continent and anti-immigrant anger, Far-Right (and in some isolated cases Far-Left) parties achieved momentous gains. What does this mean for the future and why does it matter to the United States?
- Ukraine Update: The Presidential Elections and Beyond
David Speedie discusses the election of new Ukrainian president Petro Poroshenko with University of Rhode Island's Nicolai Petro and University of Kent's Richard Sakwa, both speaking from Odessa in southern Ukraine.
- Sarajevo is a Symbol: Commemorating the 100th Anniversary of the Assassination
In this interview with the Turkish news organization Andalou Agency, Carnegie Council President Joel Rosenthal explains the reasons behind the Council's upcoming visit to Sarajevo and why its participation in the commemoration of the outbreak of World War I is important.
- The Long Shadow: David Reynolds on World War I
David Reynolds discusses the different ways the carnage of World War I is memorialized in Europe and its different long-term effects on Western and Eastern Europe; England, Scotland, and Ireland; and lastly, the United States.
- Attacks on the Press: Journalism on the Front Lines
Journalists have always faced attacks on their freedom to report stories and often on their physical safety as well. Now they face a new threat: digital surveillance. Electronic spying means that journalists cannot protect their sources, and undermines the public's confidence in the media's ability to operate without government interference.
- The Rise of the New Far Right in Europe and Implications for European Parliament Elections
This panel gives an excellent overview of the complexities of the rise of right-wing populism across Europe, focusing in particular on France, the UK, and Hungary. The discussion illuminates the differences and similarities between the movements and shows how in many countries the themes of the radical left have been hijacked by the radical right.
- Ukraine Update: Report from Odessa
With the deadly conflict in Ukraine spreading to this hitherto calm southern city, David Speedie speaks again with Dr. Nicolai Petro, professor of international relations at the University of Rhode Island, who is currently a Fulbright Fellow in Odessa.
- The Crisis of 1914 and What It Means for Us Today
A Carnegie Council delegation will visit Sarajevo in June 2014 to address questions of ethics and international affairs and to commemorate the events that contributed to the start of World War I.
- Scrambling to Adapt to Climate Change
For years, climate change activists avoided "adaptive" solutions because they thought it was admitting defeat. But with the reality of extreme weather and resource shortages, even the UN is calling for this strategy. This episode explores whether this increased focus on adaptation is equitable, and whether it distracts from mitigation efforts.
- Ukraine and U.S.-Russian Relations
With balance and objectivity, seasoned Russian policy expert Tom Graham tackles the thorny question of Ukraine and the wider scope of U.S.-Russia relations across the board.
- Ukraine: A Federalist Future?
One possibility of lowering tensions in Ukraine on a longer-term basis is the start of discussions on a federal-decentralized government structure that would not divide the country but would foster local and regional autonomy. However, although federalism is not a first step to Ukraine's disintegration, neither is it a "magic solution."
- Report from Ukraine: The Crisis Moves East
David Speedie discusses with Dr. Nicolai Petro, currently a Fulbright Fellow in Odessa, the recent outbreaks of violence in pro-Russia majority regions of Eastern Ukraine, the prospects for scheduled May elections, and the impact of the continuing crisis on U.S.-Russian relations.
- Jingo Unchained: What World War I Wrought
When we think about the centenary of World War I in 2014, we should consider first and foremost what it has meant for the life of our republic, and how the corrosive actions of a few can have enormously outsized consequences for the rest of us. One hundred years later, we are still fighting for or against Woodrow Wilson's war.
- Dance of the Furies: Michael Neiberg on Europe and the Outbreak of World War I
"It is impossible for me to see how a Second World War, a Holocaust, a Cold War, a globally-engaged United States, and decolonization could happen without the First World War. In fact, in my view we can gain a lot of clarity by seeing the two world wars as one war, almost as a second Thirty Years War."
- Ukraine, The Great Powers, Budapest, and "Astheneia"
Was it unethical for the United States to give Ukraine non-binding security guarantees as an inducement for giving up nuclear weapons?
- Iran and Nuclear Proliferation: Update with Joseph Cirincione
Joseph Cirincione, president of the Ploughshares Fund, discusses the status and prospects for the ongoing P5+1 talks in Vienna on Iran's nuclear program, and the importance of successful negotiations for the global nuclear nonproliferation agenda.
- An Update from Ukraine
From Odessa, political scientist Dr. Nicolai Petro discusses the unrest in the eastern Donbas region and possibilities for a diplomatic resolution of the Ukraine crisis.
- Blueprint or Scramble?
Climate change is impacting the globe in surprising ways. The Maldives might be submerged, but Canadian trade could benefit from new waterways. What's the best way forward--short-term responses or long-term solutions? Don't miss the next episode, which looks at the shift from climate change mitigation to adaptation.
- Iran's Nuclear Program: Status and Prospects for the P5+1 Negotiations
Discussions among the Iran and the P5 countries and Germany on the Iranian nuclear energy program are ongoing in Vienna. William O. Beeman, professor and chair of the Department of Anthropology at the University of Minnesota, who has written extensively on these issues, discusses the current state of affairs and possible outcomes.
- Driving Competitive Advantage through Values-Based Leadership
"There can be no choice between doing well financially and behaving responsibly in business," declares Barclays Group Chief Executive Antony Jenkins. "The last half-dozen years make it obvious that you cannot have long-term success without behaving responsibly. This has to be integral to how you operate a company."
- No Ordinary Men: Dietrich Bonhoeffer and Hans von Dohnanyi, Resisters Against Hitler in Church and State
Sifton and Stern tell the story of two of the most courageous opponents of the Nazi regime, pastor and theologian Dietrich Bonhoeffer and lawyer Hans von Dohnányi. From the earliest days of Nazism, both men perceived the threats, documented them, and plotted to overthrow Hitler. And they paid with their lives.
- Crisis in Ukraine: Ukraine and Russia Beyond Crimean Secession
Professor Nicolai Petro, currently in Odessa, Ukraine, discusses recent developments, including the secessionist vote in the Crimean peninsula and the subsequent annexation by Russia, outcomes for the rest of Ukraine, and two major speeches by President Putin on the situation and the impact on relations between Russia and the West.
- Ethics Matter: A Conversation with Sebastian Junger
Journalist Sebastian Junger knows about war from the inside: the horror and pain, the excitement and heightened awareness, and the fierce brotherhood between soldiers. In this moving conversation he talks about his life and work, and ponders on what everyone owes their country, whether they choose to fight or stay home.
- The Leading Indicators: A Short History of the Numbers That Rule Our World
"By relying so heavily on things like GDP, unemployment, and the suite of statistics that grew up in their wake, we are using a really good 1950s set of tools designed to answer questions of global depression, World War II, and 1950s industrial nation-states that made stuff. We're really good at measuring that world, but we're not living in that world."
- Taking Effective and Practical Steps Regarding Ukraine
Putin's ultimate goal is to avoid having a Ukraine that is a Western outpost on his border. He needs to be shown that the policies he is now pursuing, if aggressively continued, will result in the very outcome he wants to avoid. The U.S. and its allies must take steps that create conditions and provide time for him to seriously think about it.
- Rein in Ukraine's Neo-Fascists
For a new government to succeed in Ukraine, it's important that the nation's neo-fascist, anti-Semitic, and anti-Russian parties are marginalized, writes David Speedie.
- The Secret of Political Jiu-Jitsu
"While oppression may appear to be a display of the government's power, skilled activists know that it's actually a sign of weakness."
- Crisis in Ukraine: Crimean Stand-Off
In the latest Security Bulletin, Russia expert Professor Nicolai Petro speaks from Odessa in southern Ukraine on the ongoing crisis, with a particular focus on the strategically vital Crimean Peninsula, home to Russia's Black Sea Fleet and to a substantial ethnic Russian population.
- To End All Wars: Adam Hochschild on World War I
The consequences of World War I are still with us, says Adam Hochschild. Are we in danger of making the same mistakes again? Why were Europeans so eager to go to war? What happened to those who publicly opposed it? Read the answers to these questions and more in this fascinating interview.
- The Fog of Peace: The Human Face of Conflict Resolution
The courageous Gianni Picco played a central role in negotiating the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan, met with Saddam Hussein to bring an end to the Iran-Iraq War, and traveled to both Beirut and Tehran to rescue 11 hostages and 91 other prisoners. How did he do it? By treating adversaries as individuals, not just government representatives.
- New Interview Series, "Ethics in Security Bulletin," with an Initial Focus on Ukraine
This podcast interview series explores the ethical dimensions of issues around the world, from Eastern Europe to the Middle East, and discusses the role played by U.S. foreign policy and the West.
- Crisis in Ukraine: The View from Beyond Kiev
This is the third in a series of Security Bulletins on the crisis in Ukraine, and here Dr. Nicolai N. Petro gives us a view from beyond Kiev, from Odessa in the country's South. He explains the various political factions and warns about the danger of right-wing nationalism--not overnight, perhaps, but over the long term.
- Crisis in Ukraine: The Role and Responsibility of the West
This is the second in a series of Carnegie Council Security Bulletins on the crisis in Ukraine, in conversation with Dr. Anton Shekhovtsov, a Ukrainian-born expert on his nation and on European and Eurasian nationalism, who is now based at University College London.
- Norway’s Sovereign Wealth Fund and Global Justice: An Exchange
Dozens of countries have established Sovereign Wealth Funds. Just how should the money be spent, and how good are national claims to this money in the first place? Four experts respond to Chris Armstrong's "Ethics & International Affairs" article, "Sovereign Wealth Funds and Global Justice."
- The Limits of Partnership: U.S.-Russian Relations in the 21st Century
Sochi, Snowden, and Syria--these are just a few of the issues complicating the U.S.-Russian relationship, says Georgetown's Angela Stent in this dynamic and informed talk. But, because of Russia's strategic location, nuclear arsenal, and presence in the UN, it's a partnership worth working on.
- Crisis in Ukraine: A Voice from Kiev, January 31, 2014
What is the likely outcome of the violent clashes in Ukraine? Does the U.S. and the West have a moral imperative to intervene and, if so, how? Speaking from Kiev, Dr. Andreas Umland assesses the situation.
- Ethics Matter: Top Risks and Ethical Decisions 2014 with Ian Bremmer
So what should we look out for in 2014? "The economic risks are receding. The geopolitical risks are becoming more important," says political risk guru Ian Bremmer. Don't miss this entertaining but fact-filled talk for insights on global affairs, from U.S. foreign policy, to the Middle East, Asia, Russia, Europe, and emerging markets.
- The Rise of Extremism in a Disunited Europe
A sinister scenario is playing out in Europe: the rise of right-wing populism, and in some cases, extreme far-right forces. Throughout 2013, Carnegie Council's U.S. Global Engagement program tracked these developments and it will be publishing its findings in 2014. This article analyzes the current situation.
- Secrets and Allies: UK and U.S. Government Reaction to the Snowden Leaks
Is Edward Snowden a whistleblower, a traitor, or a mixture of both? How should he and the media that published his leaks be treated? Journalist Alexa van Sickle analyzes the different approaches taken by the UK and the U.S., explaining their historical, legal, and cultural underpinnings.
- The Future of Transatlantic Security Cooperation after 2014
2014 may be a turning point for transatlantic security cooperation. This paper identifies the three most relevant "drivers" in this regard: financial and resource constraints, a turn towards a more inward-looking perspective in EU and NATO capitals, and shifting power relations in the international system. The paper concludes with policy recommendations.
- A Sick Asian Man Goes to Multicultural Europe: A Tale of Modern Citizenship in Transition
A parable for our times? "As the debate over multiculturalism continues, the societies to which the adjective is applied change in complex ways, as I could glimpse during my trip to Belgium in summer 2013," writes Carnegie Global Ethics Fellow Kei Hiruta.
- Ethics on Film: Discussion of "The Fifth Estate"
"The Fifth Estate" tells the story of Julian Assange and his Wikileaks organization. Since the story is still ongoing, was it too early to make this film? What are Assange's motives--ethics, self-agrandizement, or both? How accurate is the film? At this point, perhaps only the two main characters know for sure.
- Symposium at the Scottish Parliament: From War to a Global Ethic
Is it possible to create a global code of ethics? In this Carnegie Council Centennial Symposium at the Scottish Parliament, the panelists discuss Andrew Carnegie's legacy; what has changed since his time; and Carnegie Council's contribution to the vital task of moving toward a shared international understanding with which to face today's problems.
- Innovating Aid
Neha Bhat talks with innovators in humanitarian and development aid about new and efficient solutions to the crises of our time.
- Citizenship Within and Across Nations
Philosopher Kwame Anthony Appiah explores the role of civic honor, and its negative counterpart, shame, in shaping the political behavior of individuals and of nations, and in particular, in shaping the moral dimensions of political behavior.
- Mass Flourishing: How Grassroots Innovation Created Jobs, Challenge, and Change
"America has strayed pretty far from the pioneer spirit captured by Willa Cather and the movie 'Shane,'" says Nobel Prize-winner Edmund Phelps. What happened? Phelps argues that since the 1960s, there has been a resurgence of certain traditional and anti-modern values. This has resulted in "a new corporatism," which stifles innovation.
- Joel Rosenthal Awarded Honorary Degree by University of Edinburgh
In October 2013, Carnegie Council President Joel Rosenthal received an Honorary Degree of Doctor of Science in Social Sciences from the University of Edinburgh. The degree was awarded in recognition of his contribution to the field of international relations and ethics.
- Catastrophe 1914: Europe Goes to War
We should break free of the cliché that World War I was futile, argues Max Hastings. "Germany in 1914, as ruled by the Kaiser and his generals and ministers, represented a malign force whose triumph had to be frustrated."
- Strategy: A History
Creating a successful strategy is not just a question of being cleverer than your opponent. Sir Lawrence Freedman lays out some cardinal rules: think about how you are going to endure; have empathy with those whom you want to work with you, but also those who might oppose you; and be able to form coalitions.
- Year Zero: A History of 1945
Ian Buruma makes a compelling case that many of the modern triumphs, such as the European Union, the United Nations, and Japanese pacifism, as well as some of the world's unresolved conflicts in Europe, Asia, and the Middle East, all took root in 1945, that fateful year of retribution, revenge, suffering, and healing.
- Peace Pays for Itself
The global economic impact of violence in 2012 was estimated to be $9.5 trillion. Governments need a way to account for and recuperate these unproductive expenditures.
- Immigration Reform: Truths, Myths, and Politics
The great wave of illegal immigration to the United States is over, says Edward Schumacher-Matos. Our real challenge now is what to do with those 11–12 million people who are here illegally but who are part of our communities--and this is not only a legal issue but an ethical one.
- Hezbollah: The Global Footprint of Lebanon's Party of God
Created and armed by Iran, Hezbollah's reach stretches around the world, including inside the United States. Matthew Levitt traces its terrifying activities and discusses how Iran/Hezbollah might retaliate in response to a U.S. strike on Syria.
- The Unsung Hero Who Coined the Term "Genocide"
In this "The New Republic" piece, Centennial Chair Michael Ignatieff recounts the life of Raphael Lemkin, who coined the term "genocide." A Jewish, Polish law scholar who immigrated to the United States in 1941, Lemkin made it his life's project to "save future generations from the genocidal furies that had claimed his own family."
- The Fate of Cultural Property in Wartime: Why it Matters and What Should Be Done
Cultural property protection in conflict is often neglected as people argue that the lives of individuals in warzones are far more important than old buildings, pots, and books. However, it is not a question of prioritizing. We must not dismiss cultural property protection in conflicts as secondary to humanitarian tragedy, but as part of the effort to save humanity.
- Ethics on Film: Discussion of "Fire in the Blood"
With the tagline "Medicine, Monopoly, Malice," this powerful documentary tells how Western drug companies fought to keep discounted AIDS medications from reaching HIV-positive citizens of the developing world.
- The Right Social Policies Can Promote Intergenerational Ethics
A new study by Bertelsmann Foundation analyzes fairness between the young and the old, and provides policy solutions for governments in aging societies.
- Why the West Fears Islam: New Book from Global Ethics Fellow Jocelyne Cesari
Are Muslims threatening the core values of the West? Jocelyne Cesari examines this question through the lens of testimonies from Muslims in France, Germany, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and the United States.
- New Book by Harvard's Islam in the West Scholar, Jocelyne Cesari
Harvard University issued a press release for the book "Why the West Fears Islam: An Exploration of Muslims in Liberal Democracies" by Jocelyne Cesari, Global Ethics Fellow and Director of Harvard University's Islam in the West Program.
- Globalization Is the Unsung Champion of the Protests Happening Around the World
Through the late 80s and 90s, protests everywhere from Berlin to Seattle revealed a common target of public unrest: globalization. Now, however, globalization has become an unsung champion of an empowered, rising global middle class that is more connected and has higher expectations politically. The June protests in Brazil are a good example.
- Book Review: Political Philosophy in the Twentieth Century: Authors and Arguments
This collection of essays edited by Catherine Zuckert provides an overview of the work and lives of 18 thinkers who made significant contributions to the development of political philosophy in the last century.
- Why the West Fears Islam: An Exploration of Muslims in Liberal Democracies
Are Muslims threatening the core values of the West? In her latest book, Global Ethics Fellow Jocelyne Cesari examines this question through the lens of testimonies from Muslims in France, Germany, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and the United States.
- Global Ethical Dialogues: Concept Paper
How can Carnegie Council, an organization with a global mandate but based in New York, contribute to generating egalitarian dialogue within and between unequal societies? We hope to do so by organizing an inter-connected series of global dialogues on the ethical roots of problems we face in common and what we need to do together to solve them.
- Solar Trade Wars Threaten the Climate Fight
Can countries along the solar supply chain coordinate their domestic subsidies before a trade war erupts that would be bad for business and the environment?
- Foreign Policy Begins at Home: The Case for Putting America's House in Order
We have been guilty of overreaching abroad and underachieving at home, says Richard Haass, and these sins are really two sides of the national security coin. After all, "our capacity to act abroad is obviously directly limited and affected by the capacities we have created here at home, whether the capacities are military or economic or human."
- What the World Bank Does Not Understand About "Doing Business"
The World Bank's research on Doing Business fails to focus on the obstacles that matter most to entrepreneurs in emerging markets.
- Using SMART Technology to Stop Wildlife Poachers
Several major wildlife organizations collaborated on a free, open-source Spatial Monitoring and Reporting Tool to help park rangers improve their anti-poaching patrols.
- Evangelical Catholicism: Deep Reform in the 21st Century
In this in-depth, erudite talk, George Weigel discusses the historic shift taking place in the Catholic church; the character of the new mode of Catholicism that is coming into being; his personal impressions of the new pope; and the flourishing church in Africa.
- The World of Wal-Mart
With the deadly April 2013 collapse of the Rana Plaza building in Bangladesh, once again the spotlight is on multi-national companies like Wal-Mart, whose production is often out-sourced to factories with substandard conditions. As usual, there are promises of reforms, along with denials of culpability. But will the world of Wal-Mart ever change?
- Breakout Nations: In Pursuit of the Next Economic Miracles
Which countries will be the next big thing? Most follow a four-point cycle, says Sharma: "You have economic crisis. They carry out economic reforms. After they carry out economic reforms, some sort of boom takes place. Then complacency sets in, and then you get back to having a crisis." So beware! Economic development is extremely hard to sustain.
- Years Later, Secular Student Group Recognized On A Religious Campus: Here's How It Happened
In order to be truly inclusive, interfaith dialogue and collaboration must also include those without faith.
- Book Review: "The Undivided Past: Humanity Beyond Our Differences"
"The Undivided Past" aims to show that "the most resonant forms of human solidarity," as author David Cannadine elegantly puts it, are unstable and often ultimately incoherent. In other words, many foundational concepts cannot withstand logical or historical scrutiny.
- Investing in an Independent Scotland
In an eloquent speech, First Minister Salmond, leader of the government in Scotland, makes the case for an independent Scotland. In addition to compelling economic reasons, he argues that clearly, "the best people to take decisions about Scotland are the people who choose to live and work in Scotland."
- Why Dictators Don't Like Jokes
Pro-democracy activists around the world are discovering that humor is one of the most powerful weapons in the fight against authoritarianism.
- Social Covenants Must Precede Social Contracts
Fragile states that do not first forge a social covenant will later find it difficult to codify justice in a social contract.
- Years Later, Secular Student Group Recognized On A Religious Campus: Here's How It Happened
In order to be truly inclusive, interfaith dialogue and collaboration must also include those without faith, write communications assistant Andreas Rekdal and interfaith activist Chris Stedman in the "Huffington Post."
- Why Dictators Don’t Like Jokes
Grant Manager Mladen Joksic's co-authored piece "Why Dictators Don't Like Jokes" was featured in "Foreign Policy" magazine. The article was picked up by "Slate," "The Sydney Morning Herald," Heraldonline, and iPolitics, and was translated into Vietnamese, Portuguese, and Serbian for various publications.
- Thought Leader: Mary Robinson
"What strikes me about the world today is that it's a world of 7 billion people who are more connected than ever before, and yet the divides are huge. We see growing inequality both within countries and between countries. I'm not sure that we can continue like this and be socially cohesive."
- The Measure of Civilization: How Social Development Decides the Fate of Nations
Ian Morris demonstrates that social development can be measured across thousands of years. Based on past trends, what can we expect in the future? For one thing, the pace of change has accelerated. Morris predicts that the 21st century is going to be a "race between shifts in the balance of power, a transformation of humanity, and catastrophe."
- Innovation to the Rescue: New Ideas and Tech for Helping Refugees
The UN refugee agency is adopting an innovation-centered approach in pursuit of better services, products, and outcomes for displaced populations.
- Thought Leader: Hans Küng
World peace may never be achieved, but the EU shows that peace is possible if everybody cooperates. I insist on the importance of religions: No peace among nations without peace between religions. No peace between religions without a dialogue between religions. No dialogue between religions without shared ethical values and standards.
- Public Affairs: Everybody Matters: My Life Giving Voice
In this inspiring talk about her extraordinary life so far, Mary Robinson tells us of her early years and how she became president of Ireland, even though the odds were 100-1; her work as a champion of human rights, especially those of women; and about her current work as president of the Mary Robinson Foundation - Climate Justice.
- Thought Leader: Jay Winter
"One of the things I've seen over my lifetime is a move away from war and from the place of the military in political life. This to me is astonishing and unpredictable."
- Thought Leader: Tomas Sedlacek
"To use the New Testament sort of logic, who is my neighbor? Today that extends not only to your family or your literal neighbors. We know much more about the situations of poor people in China or India or Africa, and so the scope of ethical responsibility today has grown to some global measures."
- Thought Leader: Srdja Popovic
"There are two kinds of countries in this world, the good ones and the bad ones. The good ones I count as the countries where the governments are afraid of their people. The bad ones I count as the countries where people are afraid of their governments."
- Scotland, Independence, and Internationalism
The debate over Scotland's future is one that not only has ramifications for Scotland and Britain, but for the rest of the world as well.
- Exporting Expertise: Lessons from Brazil's Forest Success
It took a broad group of actors to reduce Brazilian deforestation by 75 percent in seven years. Now, their success can be emulated in other tropical countries.
- The Great Convergence: Asia, the West, and the Logic of One World
As more people become prosperous and interstate conflicts diminish, there is a convergence between East and West, says Kishore Mahbubani. Now we have to change our mindset accordingly and act as one united world on issues such as climate change. One important step is to reform the UN.
- Arctic Stewardship: Maintaining Regional Resilience in an Era of Global Change [Full Text]
What sorts of harms arising from changes now occurring in the Arctic are actionable, and who can and should take the actions required to respond to these harms?
- The Revenge of Geography: What the Map Tells Us About Coming Conflicts and the Battle Against Fate
With a breadth and depth of knowledge spanning not only current geopolitics but centuries of history, Robert Kaplan shows us the crucial importance of geography in shaping our destinies. Geography still matters, and always will.
- Five Myths About Nuclear Weapons
What if everything we believe about nuclear weapons is wrong? "Reexamine the facts and you'll see that the arguments for nuclear weapons aren't powerful; they're preposterous. They are an unpersuasive collection of wishful thinking held together by nothing more than fear and rationalization."
- Ethics Matter: Top Risks and Ethical Decisions 2013 with Ian Bremmer
"There are three big things happening right now in the world: China rising, Middle East exploding, Europe muddling through. Those are the things that truly matter, in the sense that they have potentially very different kinds of trajectories and outcomes depending on where they go."
- Thought Leader: Michael Doyle
"What has changed in the modern world is that we can now see our fellow members of the common human moral universe and we cannot be so blind. We can see the suffering. That's a big change that has taken place in the past couple of centuries."
- Why Tolerate Religion?
Why do Western democracies single out religion for preferential treatment? For example, why can a Sikh boy carry a dagger to school while other children cannot? Is this morally and legally justifiable?
- Ethics Matter: Srdja Popovic on Creating Successful Nonviolent Movements
Successful nonviolent movements need three things: the cool factor, memorable branding, and humor, says Popovic. He cofounded the Serbian youth movement Otpor!, which played a major role in toppling Milosevic, and his work training activists in Egypt and Tunisia is widely credited for inspiring Arab Spring protesters.
- Buds of Hope
With technical assistance from a local NGO, poor farmers in Maharashtra have been able to supplement their seasonal income by cultivating organic jasmine buds.
- The Crisis in Greece, Democracy, and the EU
The sovereign-debt crisis in Greece made clear that the fate of Greece, the Eurozone, and the EU are irrevocably bound together. It sparked debates on economic reform, democracy, solidarity, sovereignty, and popular discontent. This essay examines these questions by looking at one event: Prime Minister Papandreou's attempted referendum in 2011.
- America in the 21st Century: A View from America
"Why is it that the political system today seems so gridlocked? Why is the issue of brinkmanship in America so incredibly debilitating and so very real? Is there something which has always been the case in U.S. history or is there something else going on today which is fueling this problem and making this age of brinkmanship so pernicious?"
- 3D Printing Can Unlock Development Potential
3D printing is the new frontier in manufacturing, with potentially radical effects on patterns of global trade and development.
- Why and How the Euro Zone Crisis Will Be Solved
Danish economist Jacob Funk Kirkegaard offers a contrarian take on the euro zone crisis. While he notes that there are political problems within the European Union, he argues that the crisis is an opportunity from which Europe will emerge more integrated and resilient.
- How Religious Leaders Can Come Together to Work on Global Problems
Religious leaders must come together as never before and take an active role in making an interfaith dialogue with global peace and security as its goal, says Grand Mufti of Bosnia-Herzegovina Mustafa Ceric. He cites three important initiatives from his own experiences.
- Peace: What Is it Good for?
Andrew Carnegie was ahead of his time; he questioned the essence of imperial Great Power politics and offered an alternate future. He debunked the glorification of war. Carnegie raised our expectations--and this, in the end, is his most enduring peace legacy.
- Thought Leader: Mustafa Ceric
"I would advise my dear intellectuals of this age and time and place to give us some good imagination, especially to the young people."
- Home Alone?
What is it like to be liberal in East Asia? Is liberalism a specifically Western ideology, or does it embody universal norms? The old dispute is a matter of pressing concern in East Asia, where political leaders repeatedly denounce liberal values for various purposes--from suppressing dissenters to pursuing popular support.
- Policy Simulations Could Help Combat Sex Trafficking
Through virtual simulation of anti-trafficking policies, enforcement agencies would get a better grasp on how to target their efforts.
- Repairing the Shattered Sky
A new film looks at American leadership during the ozone crisis and compares it to the situation with global warming today. The clock is ticking for the United States to step up to the plate this time around.
- The Practice of Bioregionalism
Through local governance, appropriate technologies, and the occasional confederation for solving big problems, bioregionalism promotes human flourishing along with natural sustainability.
- Open Source WikiHouse Disrupts Traditional Design
The WikiHouse open-source construction set enables users to download, modify, and share designs for small structures, which can then be assembled socially in about a day.
- The Phone Hacking Scandal: Global Implications
The UK hacking scandal was a major breach of law and ethics. Yet too extreme a backlash runs the risk of throwing the baby out with the bathwater, and any legislative or regulatory changes in the UK could also have consequences for international freedom of the press.
- Do Language Policies Contribute to Poverty and Underdevelopment?
In least developed countries, language policy should aim to increase education, productivity, and cohesion, yet many countries have policies that work against these aims.
- Fair Ideas for Saving the Planet
There were some glimpses of a sustainable future at IIED's Fair Ideas conference in Rio, but local innovations still need to scale up and penetrate the mainstream.
- Globalizing Censorship
Consent of the Network by Rebecca MacKinnon is a must-read on how businesses and governments wield influence over the Internet.
- Global Rules, Local Rulers
Carnegie UK Trust staff open up a fascinating discussion with the Carnegie Council audience on their research into the relationship between advocacy groups, citizens, and international organizations that regulate trade, markets, and consumer policy.
- The Leaderless Revolution: How Ordinary People Will Take Power and Change Politics in the 21st Century
Countries the world over are suffering from a deficit of democracy, says Carne Ross, and it's not enough just to protest and/or tinker with the existing system. Radical change is needed. We, the people, must take on the burden of governing ourselves.
- What Does It Mean to Prevent Genocide?
It's essential to understand that genocide is a process, not an event, says Tibi Galis from the Auschwitz Institute for Peace and Reconciliation. It doesn't just happen out of the blue. So there are chances to step in and change the course of this process.
- How Much is Enough?: Money and the Good Life
Our obsession with amassing ever more wealth is actually robbing us of the good life, argue Robert and Edward Skidelsky. They identify seven basic needs that together make up the good life and lay out some radical social proposals to achieve them.
- Every Nation for Itself: Winners and Losers in a G-Zero World
What's a G-zero world? It's when no one takes a global leadership role, when no one is willing to, and no one is capable of doing it--and that's the world we're living in now, according to political scientist Ian Bremmer. So what does this mean for both now and the future?
- Pax Ethnica: Where and How Diversity Succeeds
The headlines are full of stories of deep-simmering hatreds and ethnic strife. How about some good news for a change? Historians Meyer and Brysac explore places where diversity is actually working, from Kerala to Queens. What can we learn from these "oases of civility"?
- America in the 21st Century: A View from Europe
It's likely that the U.S. will cease to be the world's largest economic power by not later than the 2020s, predicts Martin Wolf. However--depending on its policy choices--it will probably remain a center of world innovation in research, technology, and business.
- Planet Money Tells the Story of Sovereign Debt
How can you explain the European debt crisis so that ordinary Americans can understand--and what's more, care? Through interviews and story-telling techniques, these two NPR reporters show us that it's actually a long-drawn-out love story.
- Global Ethics Corner: Is the World Bank Outdated?
With the election of another American to head the World Bank, some are questioning the institution's legitimacy and role in the world. Since once-impoverished nations are driving world economic growth, should the developing world have a greater say in the bank's governance?
- Global Ethics Corner: Do Super-Maximum Security Prisons Constitute Cruel and Unusual Punishment?
A surprise ruling from the European Court of Human Rights could send five terror suspects to a super-maximum security prison in the United States. Is keeping inmates in solitary confinement for years a form of torture? Or is Supermax a necessary tool to combat global terror?
- No One's World: The West, the Rising Rest, and the Coming Global Turn
How do we manage a world where no one power is dominant, and emerging powers have their own views about how to organize political, social, and commercial life?
- Europe's Far Right Goes Mainstream: The Failure of Multiculturalism?
What explains the far right's resurgence across Europe? Despite the perceived failures of multiculturalism, the continent should do more to understand why xenophobia remains so compelling and why its immigrants continue to struggle to become European.
- Power, Inc.: The Epic Rivalry Between Big Business and Government--and the Reckoning That Lies Ahead
David Rothkopf issues a wake-up call to Americans: We have to drop our knee-jerk, partisan attitudes and ask, "What will produce the kind of society that we want to have?" We also have to stop assuming that U.S. capitalism and U.S. views will be dominant in the future.
- The Responsibility to Protect: A New International Norm?
What is Responsibility to Protect exactly? Dutch Ambassador Herman Schaper gives an expert talk on how it developed, how it is defined, how it was implemented in Libya, and what are the implications for the future.
- Do World Bank Country Classifications Hurt the Poor?
The incoming World Bank president should create a more sophisticated system for classifying countries as low or middle income, using broad development indicators.
- Global Ethics Corner: Scotland Steps Up: Will it Become Independent?
With a recent resurgence of nationalism, Scottish independence is once again a topic of discussion. Do Scotland's vast oil reserves make this a realistic possibility? Or would reliance on a single resource cause the new country to struggle economically after breaking away from the U.K.?
- The Emergency State: America's Pursuit of Absolute National Security at All Costs
David Unger argues that because of national security fears, the U.S. has bypassed its Constitution, creating an "emergency state." The result is excessive military spending, a series of unconstitutional wars, and skewed global trade policies. He also tackles Europe's economic crisis.
- Global Ethics Corner: A Force for Good or Evil? Google Maps and Border Wars
Border disputes have been around for thousands of years, but in the age of Google Maps, they are taking on another dimension. Does Google bear any responsibility if a conflict arises because of borders it has drawn? Or should we all realize that these maps are just for "entertainment"?
- The Kasiisi Porridge Project Story
An innovative NGO in Uganda has helped bring daily porridge to hungry schoolchildren, and it is now expanding with a 20-acre multipurpose farm and indigenous forest to make the project sustainable.
- Global Ethics Corner: China on the Rise: Is China's Political Model Superior?
With economic malaise and political stalemates commonplace across the U.S. and Europe, some are beginning to look to China for answers. Is democracy, with its check and balances, still the best form of governance? Or could the West learn a few things from the "China model"?
- Ethics Matter: Policymaker and Scholar Anne-Marie Slaughter
Anne-Marie Slaughter on the responsibility to protect: "I believe in a values-based foreign policy and looking to cooperate as often as I can. I also think that's basic self-interest. We don't do well when we go in without the support of other nations."
- Russia Bulletin, Issue 3
What lies behind Russia's veto and its opposition to the U.S.-led hard line on Damascus? Whether or not we agree with them, Russia has its reasons.
- Deng Xiaoping and the Transformation of China
Deng Xiaoping was one of the most important leaders of the 20th century. Scholar Ezra Vogel discusses Deng's life, focusing on his work in opening up China to other countries. Vogel also grapples with the 1989 Tiananmen Square massacre, which was carried out on Deng's orders.
- Why Are We Surprised at Egypt's Backlash against Foreign NGOs?
The outrage over Egypt's arrest of 43 NGO workers, at least 16 of whom are American, is understandable and well deserved. But it also speaks to a little acknowledged paradox: These organizations are conducting democracy-building work that would never be tolerated in the U.S.
- The Varieties of Protest Experience: How Accountability Gaps Link the Arab Spring and Occupy Wall Street
Can the recent eruption of protests be interpreted as a single phenomenon, even though spread out across great distances and separated by barriers of language and culture? Can we locate a common strand of thought or purpose that binds them together?
- Russia Bulletin, Issue 2
David Speedie examines Russia's position on Iran; the upcoming Russian elections, including the Moscow demonstrations and the West's attitude towards them;and Jackson-Vanik and U.S.-Russia trade.
- Currency Wars: The Making of the Next Global Crisis
We are already in Currency War III, says Rickards, who sees four possible outcomes--none of them good--that he calls "the four horsemen of the dollar apocalypse." Here's a tip: keep your eye on gold.
- Global Ethics Corner: NATO and Turkey: Should Human Rights Be Sacrificed for a Missile Defense System?
As NATO's missile defense system goes live in Turkey, questions have been raised about the nation's human rights record. Should NATO condemn Turkey's recent crackdowns on free speech and the media? Or does the country's geostrategic importance trump these concerns?
- A Global Look at Migration
Global migration is a key part of our economic future and one that is often overlooked. Three experts offer very different takes on migration, spanning Europe, the USA, and lastly the Gulf States, where migrants make up the majority of the population and citizens are in the minority.
- Ethics Matter: Economist and Development Expert Jeffrey Sachs
Jeffrey Sachs discusses America's economic and moral crisis; development aid; the Occupy Wall Street movement; and the mobilization of youth around the world, fighting for the basic principles of freedom, justice, and equality.
- Global Ethics Corner: Goodbye Euro?
The euro was once thought to be a symbol of peace and prosperity in post-World War II Europe. As the sovereign debt crisis continues, are we watching the end of this currency and, more ominously, a unified Europe?
- Grand Pursuit: The Story of Economic Genius
Looking back at the truly revolutionary rise in global living standards over the last 150 years, what have we learned about economic policies? There are clear lessons about what works and what doesn't, says Sylvia Nasar, author of "A Beautiful Mind."
- The Shadow World: Inside the Global Arms Trade
In 2010, global military expenditure was roughly $1.6 trillion--that's $235 for every person on earth. This has profound impacts, from the perpetuation of conflict, to the corrosion of democracy, to massive socioeconomic costs.
- Ian Hurd on International Law and Security
"I would disagree with those who suggest international law doesn't really matter. If we look at what states do, they work very hard to marshal legal resources behind their foreign policy choices. They clearly care very much about being seen as following international law."
- George F. Kennan: An American Life
George Kennan was one of the great men of the 20th century, says John Lewis Gaddis. And he was great in multiple dimensions: as the grand strategist of the Cold War; as a historian; and as author of one of the greatest of American diaries.
- Re-Imagining a Global Ethic
"A global ethic makes it possible for us to agree to disagree about ultimate questions, provided we have the philosophical clarity that comes from that process of adversarial justification," says Ignatieff in this thoughtful and challenging talk.
- UN Population Fund Report
Now that the population has reached seven billion, most of the focus is on the numbers. In this report, however, Crossette explores individual stories around the world to shed light on such issues as aging populations, migration, and the desire of women for family planning.
- Global Ethics Corner: Debt and Democracy: Why Shouldn't Greeks Vote on Their Financial Future?
The Greek tragedy unfolding over the European debt deal raises some important questions about the bounds between debt and democracy: Why shouldn't Greeks--or any citizenry for that matter--get to vote on the economic fate of their country?
- The Climate Change Novel: A Faulty Simulator of Environmental Politics
Ultimatums. Floods. Ecotage. More than 200 novels have been written that imagine life in a climate-changed world, and they point to some of the fundamental difficulties we have in articulating a just and sustainable future.
- Illusions of Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism
"It's time that we got ourselves out of this false sense of insecurity and realize that terrorism is here to stay, it will never pose an existential threat to this country, and the biggest threat it poses to us is that we will work ourselves into overreacting to the threat that it poses us."
- Ethics Matter: Conversation with Moral Philosopher Peter Singer
Utilitarian philosopher Peter Singer lives up to his beliefs, giving away 25-30 percent of his income to alleviate absolute poverty, and defending animal rights--or as he puts it, "extending equality beyond the species boundary." Here are his thoughts on these topics and more.
- Economics of Good and Evil: The Quest for Economic Meaning from Gilgamesh to Wall Street
Why pretend that economics is value free? It's a product of our civilization and riddled with moral judgements, says Sedlacek. By separating economics from ethics we have created a zombie, a monster without a soul. The two have to be put back together.
- Carnegie Council's Program on U.S. Global Engagement: a Two-Year Retrospective
These materials from a June 2011 international conference examine U.S.-Russian relations; nuclear arms control and nonproliferation; European and NATO security challenges for the future, including Afghanistan; and competition and cooperation in the Arctic region.
- European Security and Arms Control
Although Russia and the West are confronting each other on a number of issues, it is premature to write off their strategic partnership. The New START Treaty establishes stability of the nuclear balance for the next decade. This will help them eventually move to mutual assured security.
- The Precarious State of Flux of the Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Treaty (CFE)
This paper's main predictive theoretical proposition is that, in fact, progress on conventional arms control in Europe will continue to move at a pace dictated by nuclear atmospherics.
- Jackson-Vanik: Time for Reconsideration?
The Jackson-Vanik amendment has been imposed on Russia for 37 years. Is it time for repeal? This event is in cooperation with EastWest Institute.
- Happy Park(ing) Day 2011
Urban advocates, planners, officials, and artists join forces each September to install miniature parks and pop-up cafes in parking spaces normally reserved for cars.
- Global Ethics Corner: Ten Years After 9/11: What Have We Learned?
As we take stock of the decade since 9/11, the lessons we have learned are still unclear. Ten years on, analysts impart contentious lessons that may even be irreconcilable. As you reflect on the past decade, what did you learn from 9/11?
- What Should be the Next Phase in U.S.-Russia Relations?
Reflecting on U.S.-Russia relations, Thomas Graham and Nikolas Gvosdev agree that there is an urgent need to find a common strategic purpose that suits the interests of both the U.S. and Russia.
- The Future of U.S.-Russian Relations
Can the United States and Russia finally put their zero-sum competition in Eurasia behind them so that they can concentrate on the common strategic challenges before them, such as how to deal with China and with the former Soviet space?
- Russia's High Ambitions and Ambivalent Activities in the Arctic
The Arctic is often seen as a no-mans-land where natural resources are up for grabs. In reality, international cooperation is working well and the regions's wealth has been overestimated. Nonetheless, Russia's ambitions are bound up with the Arctic, and this can lead to tensions.
- Cooling Things Down: The Legalization of Arctic Security
Many are concerned about possible struggles over Arctic territory and resources. Yet this paper argues that most Arctic sovereignty disputes have either been resolved or are actively being negotiated. Thus there is no competition for territory or resources, and no prospect of conflict.
- The Ethics of the Nuclear Security Summit Process
This paper examines the ethical questions around two intertwined 21st century issues: nuclear terrorism and the Nuclear Security Summit (NSS) process. Does the process take into account the principles of pluralism, fairness, and rights and responsibilities?
- The Soviet and U.S. Experiences in Military Intervention in Afghanistan and Current U.S.-Russian Cooperation
This paper examines the similarities and differences in the 1980s Soviet experience in Afghanistan and the current U.S.-led coalition effort, and the mutual interests for Washington and Moscow to avoid the kind of end-game of 1992, when the Najibullah regime fell.
- European/Eurasian Security and the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE)
What is the role of the CFE Treaty as part of contemporary European security architecture? How has it performed since its signing and what is its current status? What steps must be taken to ensure that this agreement remains relevant and continues its "cornerstone" role?
- Global Ethics Corner: Libya After Qaddafi: Redefining our Responsibilities
As Libya prepares for its future, do NATO member states have a moral responsibility to protect peace and stability? Or should Libya's future be of its own making? What do you think?
- The Current Status and Prospects for the U.S.-Russia Relationship
The U.S.-Russia relationship is never linear and never always smooth sailing, says Stent. What are the achievements of the reset policy and what remains to be achieved? How can we maintain the momentum that we have now in this relationship and not let it slip again?
- The Collapse of the Soviet Union: Thoughts on the 20th Anniversary
U.S. Ambassador to the USSR Jack Matlock explodes some myths that are current in the United States, in Russia, and in Europe about just how and when the Cold War ended and how and when the Soviet Union collapsed.
- Reflections on the UK Riots: Let's Not Rush to Judgment
In the UK, the debate rages as to root causes of the August 2011 riots, and along predictable lines. But as is so often the case in events so unexpected and alarming, the rush to analysis seems premature, unhelpful.
- AMRO and the IMF: The Need for Global Economic Governance Reform
At this critical juncture, many emerging nations believe that global economic governance is derelict. This explains the rise of regional organizations such as AMRO, a Singapore-based regional monetary surveillance apparatus. What does this mean for the future of the IMF?
- Gennady Burbulis on the Dissolution of the USSR
Burbulis was one of the drafters and signers of the 1991 Belavezha Accords, which declared the Soviet Union effectively dissolved. In this interview he discusses the significance of the Accords, his close association with Yeltsin, and the role of the Krieble Institute.
- Ireland's Tough Path to Economic Recovery
What brought down the Celtic Tiger and will it rise again? Barry O'Leary, head of IDA Ireland (Industrial Development Agency), explains how and why Ireland went from boom to bust, and how foreign direct investment can play a role in its recovery.
- Legislating Transparency in the Extractive Sector: Will the Securities and Exchange Commission Take the Lead?
The SEC has an opportunity to demonstrate that the United States takes transparency and accountability seriously and intends to act as a global leader in fostering secure, equitable, long-term resource partnerships with developing nations.
- Legislating Transparency in the Extractive Sector
The SEC has an opportunity to demonstrate that the United States takes transparency and accountability seriously and intends to act as a global leader in fostering secure, equitable, long-term resource partnerships with developing nations.
- Politics of Migration in Germany: Joel Rosenthal Interviews Cem Ozdemir and Michael Goering
Immigration is both a challenge and an opportunity for Germany. So say Green Party leader Cem Ozdemir, the first immigrant member of Germany's parliament, and Michael Goering, CEO of the Hamburg-based Bucerius Foundation, which funds programs on integration.
- The Ethics of a Justice Imposed: Ratko Mladic's Arrest and the Costs of Conditionality
For Serbians, material incentives, not a moral imperative, are the main motivation for compliance with the International Criminal Tribunal. Thus Serbia has succeeded in aspects of criminal justice, but has failed to partake in transitional justice--and Mladic's arrest does not change this.
- Leif Wenar on Natural Resources and Clean Trade Policies
Consumers in countries that import natural resources are often unwittingly in business with dictators, corrupt officials, and armed groups, says Leif Wenar. Yet we could change our laws to make powerful groups in exporting countries more accountable to their own people.
- Ethics Matter: Political Scientist and Economist Francis Fukuyama
How does Francis Fukuyama view state formation, normative issues, and human behavior? Does he believe (as Andrew Carnegie did) that history moves in an upward direction and we can eventually put an end to war? This fascinating interview explores these questions and more.
- The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution
How did human beings succeed in creating the ideal of strong, accountable governments that adhere to the rule of law? Francis Fukuyama provides a sweeping account of how today's basic political institutions developed.
- RUSSIA AND THE FORMER SOVIET REPUBLICS
Russia, the world's largest country, remains a key global player. These resources examine aspects of Russia today and its relationship with the rest of the world, and look at some of the former Soviet Republics and the 2008 Russia-Georgia conflict.
- Valid Solutions for Malnutrition
Health and nutrition pioneer Steve Collins is building a social enterprise to battle severe acute malnutrition with ready-to-use therapeutic foods grown and manufactured in the developing world.
- April 2011 or April 1994? Seventeen Years Later, Libya is to Ivory Coast as Bosnia was to Rwanda
While all eyes are focused on Libya, we may be headed towards a bloodbath in Ivory Coast similar to that in Rwanda in April 1994. The Middle East is of vital strategic importance and Sub-Saharan Africa is not. Yet how can we allow history to repeat itself?
- Ethics Matter: Political Scientist Joseph S. Nye, Jr.
Joseph Nye discusses the sources of his ideas, his major concepts such as soft power, the impact of these concepts, and his thoughts on the information revolution.
- 100% Renewable by 20XX
The right mix of technologies and policy tools is lining up to move the world off dirty energy by mid century, but it will take a consistent push on many fronts.
- Better Safe than Sorry
Corporate executives should never have to apologize for violations when they can instead build global opportunities by advancing human rights.
- From Resistance to Revolution and Back Again: What Egyptian Youth Can Learn From Otpor When Its Activists Leave Tahrir Square
Joksic and Spoerri discuss Otpor, the Serbian youth movement that influenced Egypt's youths. In analyzing the sources of Otpor's ultimate collapse after Milosevic's fall, they provide lessons for current and future youth movements throughout the Middle East.
- Innovating Sovereign Wealth Funds
As we struggle to tackle financial and ecological sustainability, sovereign wealth funds such as in Alaska deserve far greater attention for positive adoption.
- Is Famine the New Norm?
If we truly consider world hunger an abomination, and not merely an investment opportunity, big changes need to be made in food policy.
- All Aboard for High-Speed Rail
The Obama administration has given passenger rail the strongest federal push since the days of Abraham Lincoln in hopes of spurring job growth and keeping pace with a rising China.
- Atlantic: Great Sea Battles, Heroic Discoveries, Titanic Storms, and a Vast Ocean of a Million Stories
Master raconteur Simon Winchester tells a series of gripping and little-known tales of the Atlantic, the ocean he calls "the inland sea of modern civilization."
- Why the West Rules--For Now: The Patterns of History, and What They Reveal About the Future
Ian Morris draws on 50,000 years of history, archeology, and the methods of social science, to make sense of when, how, and why the paths of development differed in the East and West—and what this portends for the 21st century.
- Global Ethics Corner: The EU and Serbia
Would Serbian admission to the EU prevent another Balkan War? Is promoting Serbian democracy more important than securing justice for 1990s genocides? In pursuing war criminals, is the carrot of EU admission more effective than the stick of EU exclusion?
- The Lost Peace: Leadership in a Time of Horror and Hope, 1945-1953
In a striking reinterpretation of the postwar years, Robert Dallek examines what drove leaders around the globe—Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin, Mao, de Gaulle, and Truman—to rely on traditional power politics, and the lessons we can draw from their mistakes.
- Facts Are Subversive: Political Writing from a Decade Without a Name
Looking back over the last decade, Timothy Garton Ash catalogues the challenges facing the EU--the economy, a united foreign policy, the integration of Muslims--and concludes that despite its problems the union has taken important steps forward.
- Ukraine: Reset to a Future of Strength
The "reset button" between Washington and Moscow, far from leaving our former Soviet allies in the cold, has enabled a country like Ukraine to pursue interests and alliances with new vigor. And this is positive for all parties involved, writes Jay Hallen.
- The European Union: Still a Global Player?
To the casual observer, it may be hard to see what holds EU members together, writes Stoyanova-Yerburgh. It is no surprise then that the EU, this bold experiment in integration of like-minded democracies, has lost some of its credibility as an international leader. Can it gain it back?
- Self-Determination and Conflict Resolution: From Kosovo to Sudan
Drawing on the International Court's judgment on the legality of Kosovo's unilateral declaration of independence, Arbour examines the pursuit of self-determination in a range of situations, focusing particular attention on the upcoming referendum in Southern Sudan.
- Just War, Jihad, and the Study of Comparative Ethics [Full Text]
What can the study of the comparative ethics tell us about the similarities and divergences between the just war and jihad traditions? How can the discipline help locate shared concerns, identify persistent differences, and reveal common narratives?
- The Politics of Carbon Leakage and the Fairness of Border Measures [Abstract]
It is possible to design fair border measures that address carbon leakage, are consistent with the leadership responsibilities of developed countries, do not penalize developing countries, and ensure that consumers take some responsibility for the emissions outsourced to developing countries.
- Should We Stop the Next Genocide?
Should the United States, as the world's greatest military power, use its might to prevent the next outbreak of ethnic violence from turning into a full-fledged genocide? The answer is not an easy one, writes security affairs analyst Erik Schechter.
- NUCLEAR WEAPONS, 2010
Sixty-five years after the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, nuclear weapons remain one of the greatest dangers we face. Today the world has an estimated 23,000 nuclear weapons, the equivalent of about 150,000 Hiroshima bombs.
- Diversifying Diplomacy
Independent Diplomat's goal of giving diplomatic assistance on a not-for-profit basis fills a niche in international politics and may broaden the understanding of diplomacy in the context of globalization.
- What Are You Reading? Carnegie Council Staff Picks
These recommendations from our staff cover a lot of ground both emotionally and geographically, but they all involve some aspect of ethics and international affairs. Please feel free to add your recommendations.
- A Renewable Energy and Efficiency Transformation
The Declaration of Support for an Efficient Renewable Energy Future calls for moving quickly to understand how a renewable power system can be optimized technically, economically, and ecologically. If not us, who? If not now, when?
- Declaration of Support for an Efficient Renewable Energy Future
Fossil fuel business as usual courts ecological catastrophe, resource wars, failed states, and mass migration of the desperate. Ten prominent clean energy analysts, researchers, and engineers voice their support for eliminating 80 percent of fossil fuel use in the next 20 years.
- The Case for a Union: From the Fertile Crescent to the Silk Road
Authors Abtahi and Shoamanesh have a bold proposition: a multi-state, political-economic-security union that stretches from the Fertile Crescent to the Silk Road, connecting the Indian Ocean to the Caucasus, and the Mediterranean to Central Asia.
- Activism and Policy: Prospects for Change in Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan is one of the most closed societies in the world. Its media and education system are propaganda tools and all opposition is crushed. Meanwhile, other countries are competing hotly for its vast resources of natural gas. What pressures can help bring about change?
- The Bloom is off the Rose--and the Orange, and the Tulip
What went wrong with the "Color Revolutions" in Ukraine, Georgia, and Kyrgyzstan? It was a combination of excessive expectations of the new leaders, and some policy missteps, primarily at the hands of the U.S. and the West.
- Migrant Detention Leads to Harm
Detention is costly in economic and human terms. If EU states wish to sustain their migration management policies, they will have to rely more on non-custodial alternatives.
- Beyond the NPT
Doctors Roald Sagdeev and Frank von Hippel have collaborated for decades on nuclear arms control and nonproliferation between the U.S. and the USSR. They discuss their work and their insights for the future arms control agenda.
- Rebuilding War-Torn States: The Challenge of Post-Conflict Economic Reconstruction
After wars end, what steps should countries take to consolidate peace? Graciana del Castillo identifies five premises that are necessary for war economies to transition into sustainable and productive markets.
- Future Leaders and Global Business Values: The IBM Worldwide Student Survey
How do the views of today's students and CEOs differ with regard to business on a shared planet? IBM engages with the Council's Carnegie New Leaders and the Workshops for Ethics in Business program to understand these emerging perspectives.
- Deterrence, Democracy, and the Pursuit of International Justice [Abstract]
Recent indictments of sitting heads of state and rebel leaders engaged in ongoing conflicts are radically altering our conception of international criminal justice. But contrary to the mantra that justice delayed is justice denied, the most promising way to promote justice may be to postpone it.
- Green Bonds: Devin Stewart Interviews Christopher Flensborg
Banker Chris Flensborg is one of the pioneers who developed green bonds. Issued by the World Bank, these bonds give institutional investors the opportunity to earmark their investments into climate-friendly projects.
- The End of the Free Market: Who Wins the War Between States and Corporations?
Ian Bremmer demonstrates the growing challenge that state capitalism will pose for the entire global economy, and what free market nations must do to protect their economies as this new system gains popularity.
- Soviet Fates and Lost Alternatives: From Stalinism to the New Cold War
Washington has squandered the opportunity for a fundamentally new U.S.-Russian relationship after the Cold War, says Stephen Cohen.
- Dealing with Iran: "Missed Opportunities" and "Holding Contradictory Ideas at the Same Time"
How, ask David Speedie and Gary Sick, can we move the U.S.-Iran dialogue beyond the current mutually recriminatory stalemate?
- A Mosque in Munich: Nazis, the CIA, and the Rise of the Muslim Brotherhood in the West
What do Nazis, the CIA, and the rise of the Muslim Brotherhood in the West have in common? Journalist Ian Johnson tells the untold story of a group of ex-Soviet Muslims who defected to Germany during World War II has a lesson for today: beware of using religion as a tool.
- Fault Lines: How Hidden Fractures Still Threaten the World Economy
Raghuram Rajan traces the deepening fault lines in a world overly dependent on the indebted U.S. consumer to power global economic growth, and where the U.S. has growing inequality and a thin social safety net. If these flaws are not fixed, we should be prepared for an even more serious financial crisis.
- Book Review: "The End of the Free Market" by Ian Bremmer
State capitalism differs from free-market capitalism in that politics rather than profit is the main driver of decision-making. For this reason, it threatens to curtail free markets and the global economy.
- Faith and Power: Religion and Politics in the Middle East
Bernard Lewis is one of the world's foremost Western scholars on Islam. In this eloquent talk he shares some of his knowledge, and explains how the different world views held by Christians and Muslims can lead to misunderstanding.
- The Great Brain Race: How Global Universities Are Reshaping the World
Ben Wildavsky shows how international competition for the brightest minds is transforming the world of higher education, and why this revolution should be welcomed, not feared.
- Rise of the Rest
The Council's "Rise of the Rest" project focuses not on decline of existing powers but on the emergence of others. The U.S. should accept these developments for what they are, recognize the interests of others, and see opportunity for burden sharing rather than threat to primacy.
- The Fate of the Paperless
Detention centers are on the rise as a means to control illegal immigration, while reports of human rights abuse and rising financial costs call into question their effectiveness.
- How Enemies Become Friends: The Sources of Stable Peace
Diplomatic engagement with rivals, far from being appeasement, is critical to rapprochement between adversaries, says Charles Kupchan, and diplomacy, not economic interdependence, creates the path to peace.
- Organ and Human Trafficking Intersect
An international framework for ethical organ transplantation could enable countries to coordinate shared information and interdiction strategies for curbing the illegal transplant tourism market.
- Taming the Gods: Religion and Democracy on Three Continents
Focusing on Muslims in Europe, Ian Buruma argues that religions (including Islam) and liberal democracies are compatible, despite many peoples' fears. Democracy allows space for religion as long as believers obey their society's laws.
- Xenophobia Tests National Legitimacy
The connection between xenophobic sentiments and national identity calls into question the legitimacy of nations in an era of increasing migration and multiculturalism.
- Superpower Illusions: How Myths and False Ideologies Led America Astray--and How to Return to Reality
Jack Matlock, American ambassador to the Soviet Union from 1987 to 1991, corrects a number of pervasive myths about the Cold War, including the belief that it ended with the fall of the Soviet Union and that the U.S. effectively won.
- Terrorism, Resistance, and the Idea of "Unlawful Combatancy" [Full Text]
When faced with security threats from terrorism and other forms of nonstate political violence, how should liberal-democratic states respond? Finlay discusses books by Tamar Meisels, Seumas Miller, and Timothy Shanahan.
- Global Jobs Update: Assessing the Quality and Pace of Recovery
A panel of experts from the International Labour Organization, business, academia, and the EU discuss the actions taken to address this multi-faceted crisis, and give suggestions for further ways to generate jobs.
- The Future of Capitalism and Danger of Returning to Business as Usual
When it comes to making sense of international finance and economics, the era of so-called scientific certainties is over. To address the structural challenges the world faces now, we need to explore the feasibility of global public policy.
- Taking the Waves
An innovative tidal power installation off the coast of Scotland could help demonstrate the ocean's potential for delivering renewable energy.
- Obama's Foreign Policy: What Matters and What Doesn't for America's Future
Elections and campaigns are about options. Governing is about constraints. For Obama--and every president--what happens when foreign policy options meet foreign policy constraints?
- Managed Rights, Managed Migration
While international migration is yet to be seen as an international public good, the international regime for orderly movement of people may eventually become a norm comparable to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
- Reconciling an Ethical Immigration Policy with the Nation-state Myth
Don't we, as collective owners and stewards of the Earth, have a basic right to move? Indeed, the right to move is necessary to realize basic human rights such as the right to life, food, and work.
- The Ethics of Language Choice in Immigration
Should language rights be understood as collective rights or individual rights? Do language rights entail active endorsement of immigrant languages on the part of the state, or only passive toleration in the private sphere?
- Changing the Tide for Small Island Nations
A Tobin Tax on financial transactions could generate significant funds for climate change adaptation in vulnerable island states while also helping to stabilize the global financial system.
- Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Non-violent Action from Gandhi to the Present
Should civil resistance be seen as potentially replacing violence completely, or as a phenomenon that operates in conjunction with, and as a modification of, power politics?
- The War That Killed Achilles: The True Story of Homer's Iliad and the Trojan War
- The Persistence of Eurasia
Nearly two decades after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the United States must confront the reality that Eurasia remains a very Russia-centric region.
- Light at the End of the Tunnel, But Where To?
Current U.S. policy amounts to fighting the slump by trying to return to business as usual even though it is recognized that U.S. private consumption can no longer be the engine of growth, and rising fiscal deficits pose a problem.
- Worse Than War: Genocide, Eliminationism, and the Ongoing Assault on Humanity
Rwanda, Bosnia, Cambodia, Darfur, Congo, and more--since World War II, genocide has caused more deaths than all wars put together. Goldhagen analyzes how and why genocides start and proposes steps the international community can take to stop them.
- Minding Our Minerals
Certain resources are destined for depletion if they become locked into built infrastructure or recovery costs prove too high. But this could all change if more attention is paid globally to material cycling and consumer responsibility. We need a global strategy for efficient minerals extraction, use, and reclamation.
- Hilary Charlesworth on Bills of Rights
What does a country gain by enacting a bill of rights? Do countries that lack bills of rights, like Australia, protect human rights as well as those, like the United States and Canada, that have them?
- Informal Economy Pulls Migrants to Europe
Politicians are unwilling to admit that the informal economy provides low-paying work for paperless migrants in Southern Europe, and that border control is impotent without addressing inequality.
- Global Ethics Corner: Whose Art Is It?
Should cultural treasures, acquired under dubious circumstances, be returned to their places of origin?
- Six Models for Brand-CSR Integration
Integrating CSR and brand development can be daunting without a road map. This analysis identifies six models that companies can readily replicate in their own situation.
- Pious Words, Puny Deeds: The "International Community" and Mass Atrocities [Full Text]
Most of the large-scale violence in the world will continue to occur within societies rather than between or among states. Yet the international community still has not developed the ethical-legal consensus or the institutions required to manage this terrible problem.
- The Happy Planet Index
The fact that economic growth can be conceived of in opposition to the health of the planet suggests that neither can claim to be regarded as the true overall measure of success in human society. A much more convincing case is made by the concept of well-being.
- Institutional Trappings
The institutionalization of religion seems symptomatic of the human tendency to mistrust our own intuitions, which can result in an abdication of responsibility.
- Global Ethics Corner: France and Burqas
French President Nicolas Sarkozy recently declared that burqas are not welcome in France. To some, the burqa represents the suppression of women. Yet many Muslim women embrace it. Should states have control over what people wear?
- Setting the Bar at 350
Where do we draw the political and ecological lines on climate change? How much carbon will the atmosphere take? Policy Innovations Managing Editor Evan O'Neil talks with Phil Aroneanu, director of creative media for 350.org, an international campaign to limit greenhouse gas emissions.
- Building a Continental Renewable Super Grid
As the planet warms and the economy cools, renewable resources are emerging as a realistic means to solve both problems in a timely fashion. A continental-scale smart grid would slash global greenhouse gas emissions and turn society toward a prosperous and ecological future.
- What's Wrong with Diplomacy in Damascus
The Obama administration has reversed former President George W. Bush's isolationist policies toward Syria, but has little to show for it. The government will need a more comprehensive approach to loosen Syria's ties to Iran and terrorist networks.
- Mass Incarceration as Social Control
Historians of mass incarceration in the U.S. have long argued for an assessment of the U.S. criminal justice system in terms of human rights violations. Yet only recently has this suggestion picked up traction, as punitiveness and government funding for the corrections system have reached all-time highs.
- George Kennan, the Soviet Union, and the Cold War Reconsidered
Historian John Lukacs discusses his close friend George Kennan. Kennan was an architect of the Cold War, but after 1950 he became one of its critics and recommended a dialogue with the Russians. Why the seeming contradiction?
- The Geopolitics of Emotion: How Cultures of Fear, Humiliation, and Hope are Reshaping the World
What are the driving emotions behind our cultural differences? How do these varying emotions influence the political, social, and cultural conflicts that roil our world?
- After President Obama's Visit to Europe: U.S. Relations with the EU, NATO, and Russia
Distinguished German statesman Karsten Voigt discusses the German political mindset, which grew out of its situation after World War II; Obama's popularity in Germany; and U.S.-German relations in the context of the EU, NATO, and Russia.
- A Blight on the Nation: Slavery in Today's America
Certain things we know to be true. We know that the South kept slaves, and the North fought a righteous war of liberation. We know that the Emancipation Proclamation freed all the slaves, and that the United States has been slavery-free ever since. These things we know –- and none of it is true.
- The G-20's Global Hit-and-Run
The economic crisis has been compared to familiar catastrophes such as the sinking Titanic and a tsunami. But the car crash analogy works much better for moral judgments about who should bear the costs of the financial crisis.
- Spring 2009 Poetry Contest Winners
Policy Innovations is pleased to announce the winners of its Spring 2009 Poetry Contest. The following five submissions, each from a different city, represent the inspiration we had hoped to spark with this contest. Thank you to all who participated!
- Europe Calls U.S. on Gambling Laws
Europe's WTO complaint has re-raised the issue of gambling legalization and regulation in the United States -- a topic that should arouse the interest of politicians looking for extra revenue in a time of tight budgets.
- From Tolerance to Integration: The Dutch Experience
Dutch Minister for European Affairs Frans Timmermans argues that tolerance and the attitude of "live and let live" is no longer enough. He notes that our goal must be integration, which means increasing the interactiveness between communities.
- Simultaneous Policy for Global Problems
Instead of a global race to the bottom, coordinated international action could help governments make tough policy choices without scaring off capital and factories. John Bunzl explains his Simultaneous Policy campaign.
- "The End of the West? Crisis and Change in the Atlantic Order" by Jeffrey Anderson, G. John Ikenberry, and Thomas Risse [Full Text]
This edited collection takes stock of the state of the Western alliance, seeking both to improve our theoretical understanding of conflict and crisis and to examine the relevance of theories of politics and international relations.
- Turkey Decoded
Ambassador Ann Dismorr examines Turkey's troubled relations with the EU, its role in the Middle East, its complex relationship with the U.S., and the reforms initiated by the Justice and Development Party.
- The Global Ethics & Integrity Benchmarks
Global Ethics & Integrity Benchmarks is a tool for helping multinational organizations assess and measure their progress in making a formal and transparent commitment to ethics and integrity in the workplace.
- Shallow Cuts
British pharmaceutical giant GlaxoSmithKline was lauded in recent headlines for the announcement that it would voluntarily act to improve access to medicines in developing countries. But will GSK's measures really enhance the health of the global poor?
- Managing Water Well
The economic stimulus bill signed this week by President Obama includes billions for water projects in the United States, but this is just a drop in the bucket when compared to the need for global water management.
- The Carbon Marketing Wars Have Begun
Carbon Trust has shaped the future marketing war over environmental sustainability by developing a carbon reduction label for consumer goods and services.
- Redefining Progress
Prahlad Singh Shekhawat attended the fourth Gross National Happiness conference in Bhutan this past November. He reports on the conference proceedings for us and shares some of his thoughts on the growing constellation of efforts to calculate alternative measurements of well-being.
- China's Diplomacy Contradicts Power Politics
Beijing's patient approach toward Taiwan has become an integral part of its global strategy, one characterized by confidence and an emphasis on using non-military instruments such as diplomacy, economy, culture, and psychology.
- Global Ethics Corner: Morgenthau and the New Administration
Should we observe Morgenthau's principles--avoid the crusading spirit and heed others' perspectives--or is promoting democracy and taking a forceful stand indispensable to U.S. foreign policy?
- A Conversation on NATO
The post-Cold War NATO has expanded, both in mission and membership. In each instance, problems have arisen with Russia. What are the lessons to be learned from these stresses, and what are NATO's prospects?
- Beyond Terror and Martyrdom: The Future of the Middle East
The neocons and al-Qaeda have both failed to reach their objectives, says Gilles Kepel. We are now facing one big power in the Middle East: Iran.
- Germany Moves from Atoms to Photons
Predictions that Germany will be left dangling in the wind once its nuclear power plants are shut down may be premature. Pro-renewables policies have thus far pushed Germany to the top of the league in carbon-free energy.
- The Ascent of Money: A Financial History of the World
Does the symbiotic relationship between China and America--"Chimerica" as Niall Ferguson calls it--give reason to hope that America's present economic situation will turn out to be not a crash, but a correction?
- David Speedie Interviews Ted Sorensen
"A president who doesn't go to war may show more courage than one who does," said JFK. In a wide-ranging conversation, Sorensen discusses JFK, Cuba, and Vietnam; the 2008 Russia/Georgia conflict; McCain's idea of a League of Nations; and the promise of Obama.
- After Georgia: Russia, NATO, and the CFE
Can the CFE Treaty assist in reestablishing security in the North Caucasus or has both its credibility and utility been undermined permanently?
- Financial Crisis Hurts U.S. Soft Power
The financial crisis could spell the end of America's global economic leadership, but working with other nations and building new institutions of governance may reinvigorate American influence.
- Lovers with Borders
Young international couples find the strict Danish immigration policies rotten, but a new ruling from the European Union could ease cross-border marriages.
- Rats and Robots Sniff Out Landmines
A small-but-growing number of private humanitarian efforts, some using rats and robots, are helping to address the global problem of landmines.
- A Slick Solution for Oil Markets
Although oil prices are declining, the global oil market is out of whack and prices remain high, causing economic suffering around the world. To get things back on track, policymakers will have to attempt some slick solutions.
- Green Jobs Transition Must Accelerate
Jobs will be created by the transition from a high-carbon economy to an energy-efficient one, but the transformation will have to be rapid and global to make an impact on climate change along with poverty and employment patterns.
- The Politics of Anti-Westernism in Asia: Visions of World Order in Pan-Islamic and Pan-Asian Thought [Full Text]
Aydin challenges popular assumptions that non-Western ideological movements are always hostile to Western values, on the one hand, and that such movements emerge as a function of either anticolonial struggles or conservative and religious reactions to global modernity, on the other.
- Northeast Puts on the Carbon Cap
The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative could give northeastern states an advantage over other states if a nationwide cap-and-trade system emerges.
- Russia and Georgia: A Collision Waiting to Happen
In the war between Russia and Georgia over South Ossetia the inevitable inclination is to assign black and white, blame and innocence. The truth is more complex, and is rooted in history.
- Humanitarian Aid Politicized
Humanitarian aid is often viewed as a political commodity, no matter how well intentioned the donors may be. As swelling urban centers make disasters deadlier, this poses a crucial policy problem for international relief and diplomacy.
- Is the Celtic Tiger Dead?
Nearly twenty-five years of Irish economic growth came to an end in June. Now policymakers must scramble to prevent a return to the hopeless, stagnant era of the 1980s.
Should nations restrict the flow of newcomers? What rights should immigrants have? The Carnegie Council presents a selection of essential resources on the dilemmas and effects of international migration.
- The Rise of the Rest II: How the Ascent of Russia and China Affects Global Business and Security
From economic growth to cultural exports, the global distribution of power is shifting from "the West" to the rest of the world. This panel addresses the effects of this emerging new reality.
- U Made an Illegal U-Turn
The South Korean metropolis of New Songdo is slated to be the world's largest "ubiquitous city," with tracking devices everywhere. The entrenchment of social surveillance presents a challenge for democratic integrity and personal privacy.
- SPECIAL REPORT: Proposed U.S. Missile Defenses in Europe
The U.S. proposal to establish missile defense sites in Poland and the Czech Republic has greatly exacerbated relations with Russia. Are we headed towards a new Cold War? Two U.S. and two Russian defense experts analyze the situation.
- Big Beer Brewing
Many beer lovers fear that industry consolidation will lead to homogenization -- a process some deride as "lagerization."
- ONLINE EXCLUSIVE: On U.S. Plans to Deploy ABM Systems in Europe and Possible Compromise Solutions
Petr Romashkin and Pavel Zolotarev argue that the current state of Russian-U.S. relations in the area of missile defense cannot be evaluated without taking a retrospective look at the problem.
- Twilight War: The Folly of U.S. Space Dominance
Except for the U.S. and Israel, every nation favors a treaty to prevent the weaponization of space. China has been pushing the U.S. on this since 1999. What are we waiting for?
- Rising Powers in Space
Balancing development and security in outer space will be an important international challenge in coming decades as rising powers force realignment here on Earth.
- Asylum in the EU: Between Ideals and Reality
Those who question the moral significance of borders often invoke the EU as a model of post-national belonging. Yet for asylum-seekers, "Fortress Europe" remains a more accurate description.
- Market and Community Approaches to Food Crisis
The food crisis has tempted governments to enact export bans and pull other market levers, but helping small-scale farmers might be a better long-term target for food stability.
- In Vitro Meat, a More Humane Treat
As a growing world population demands more calories, new food technologies may help alleviate some of the hunger, cruelty, and environmental problems associated with industrial livestock farming.
- Sovereign Wealth Funds under Scrutiny
Sovereign wealth funds could face a backlash if they fail to allay concerns over transparency.
- Fixing Failed States: A Framework for Rebuilding a Fractured World
Drawing on his background at the World Bank and as the first post-Taliban finance minister of Afghanistan, Ashraf Ghani (and co-author Clare Lockhart) develops a comprehensive framework for understanding the problem of state-building. In 2014, Dr. Ghani became president of Afghanistan.
- Redesigning Global Economic Governance
The financing for development conference to be held later this year in Doha could set the stage for building economic and financial multilateralism in a new mold.
- Invisible Nation: How the Kurds' Quest for Statehood Is Shaping Iraq and the Middle East
Quil Lawrence tells the story of the Kurds, the only Iraqi ethnic group that want the Americans to stay. Divided among Turkey, Iraq, Iran, and Syria and numbering 25 million, the Kurds are the largest ethnic group without their own nation.
- Missile Defense Malfunction: Why the Proposed U.S. Missile Defenses in Europe Will Not Work [Full Text]
The U.S. proposal to establish missile defense sites in Poland and the Czech Republic has exacerbated relations with Russia to a degree not seen since the Cold War, despite the fact that the system has no demonstrated capability to defend the U.S., let alone Europe.
- Growing Green During Downturn
With the threat of recession, the emphasis on green in business is shifting from the environment back to dollars.
- Russia Switches on Gas
As Europe moves to burn cleaner energy, Russia is switching to coal for its domestic market.
- Dealing Fairly with Developing Country Debt
Barry Herman, Lydia Tomitova, and Jonathan Shafter of the joint Carnegie Council–New School Ethics and Debt Project present the new book, Dealing Fairly with Developing Country Debt.
- Watching the Government Watch You
A growing movement is using the Internet to expose government problems and protect rights and privacy.
- The Fishy Business of Antidumping
Rich countries have taken frequent advantage of the broad definition of dumping to impose antidumping duties.
- Waging Peace through Commerce
Prosperity has the potential to strengthen democracies and enhance security, but only in a global atmosphere of nonaggression.
- The Global Links Initiative Story
The Global Links Initiative amplifies the new trend of social entrepreneurship in China through its multi-country network.
- The New Asian Hemisphere: The Irresistible Shift of Global Power to the East
Kishore Mahbubani argues that the Western dominance is waning and Asia has adopted many Western best practices, from meritocracy to free-market economics. Therefore it's high time that the West gives up its domination of global institutions, from the IMF to the UN Security Council.
- A League of Democracies
John McCain introduced the idea of global democracy during his 2008 U.S. presidential election campaign. The idea is worth exploring, and perhaps further than McCain intended.
- Whither the Grapes of Worth?
The Svalbard Global Seed Vault opened in Norway this week, but genetically modified organisms are not allowed. As global warming pushes wine grapes away from the equator, a natural French Chardonnay could become passe.
- Russia and the New Great Game
Two recent energy deals are the latest moves in the Great Game for energy security, with the world's main powers jockeying for access to resources and markets.
- Flowers for Sale
The traditional flower market is a thing of the past. Flowers are now imported from all over the world, creating trade-offs for the ethical consumer.
- Model Standards
As Fashion Week gets underway in New York City, it is worth asking where models' standards of beauty come from.
- The Melting Pot, the Salad Bowl, and the Confucian Ideal
Many have argued we are entering a multipolar world. Yet, this competition will not simply take place in terms of varying approaches to foreign policy but also as a result of internal policies toward minorities.
- The Fair Trade Future
The Fair Trade movement is a promising vehicle for alternative globalization, yet its dramatic growth has fueled a number of new challenges. Has Fair Trade's original agenda been eroded by the market forces it set out to change?
- Globalization Poison
The blame game for toxic toys and bad loans makes big headlines. But international scrutiny can also promote accountability.
- Black Gold Shows Bitter Trade Problems
Why can't Africa access trade as a tool to generate wealth? Black Gold delves into the international coffee supply chain to find out where the system is broken.
- Expanding Europe: The Ethics of EU-Turkey Relations [Full Text]
The possible future EU membership of Turkey has become one of the most hotly debated topics both in the EU and within Turkey itself. Underlying this debate are competing principles of international ethics.
- Reading Tariq Ramadan: Political Liberalism, Islam, and "Overlapping Consensus" [Full Text]
"Much of the disagreement and controversy over Ramadan's significance arguably stems not from a disagreement over what he is on record as having asserted or done but from unexamined or unarticulated assumptions about liberal principles and what they demand of Muslims."
- Trade Policy for Humanity
Devin Stewart talks with Susan Aaronson about her new book, "Trade Imbalance: The Struggle to Weigh Human Rights Concerns in Trade Policymaking," coauthored with Jamie Zimmerman.
- The Opt-out Marriage
Globalization increases the flexibility of labor markets, but increased mobility goes hand in hand with increased economic uncertainty, especially among young professionals. Their romantic lifestyles are adapting to the new pressures.
- Tapping Partnerships for Drinkable Water
About 1.2 billion people live without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation, a number that will certainly grow without continued pressure for innovative solutions. Cross-sector partnerships and local projects are leading the way.
- Cap and Trade vs. Carbon Tax
What's the difference between taxing carbon emissions and a market-based system of cap and trade, asks Matthew Hennessey of the Manhattan Institute for Policy Research? Which approach will more effectively reduce emissions? Which is fairer?
- Cap and Trade vs. Carbon Tax
What's the difference between taxing carbon emissions and a market-based system of cap and trade? Which approach will more effectively reduce emissions? Which is fairer?
- Selling Security
When the traditional tasks of national militaries are delegated to private military firms, civil authorities enter into two contracts with them: commercial and moral. If leaders aren't adamant about enforcing both, the results are potentially destabilizing.
- Inflation Fuels Global Hunger
Despite the best efforts of central bankers everywhere, inflation is making a comeback, and everyone's feeling the pinch of rising food and fuel prices.
- The Gulden Coffee Story
Not your average cup of joe, GULDEN coffee differentiates itself from large producers by specialty roasting and Direct Trade practices that bring the company in close contact with farmers and consumers.
- Secularism Confronts Islam
What we are witnessing in Europe," says Olivier Roy, "is a transformation from an ethnic minority into a faith community. These people want to be considered as citizens and Muslims. They don't consider themselves as a diaspora."
- Has Trade Run Aground?
As astonishing as it seems, globalization is playing better in Pretoria than in Peoria. Two recent surveys show Western attitudes toward global trade hardening even as the developing world is eager for more.
- Russia's Arctic Resource Race
The space race may be over, but the war for control of vast Arctic energy resources got a little colder this month when a Russian mini-submarine planted its flag on the seafloor at the North Pole.
- Policy Transfer Makes Street Sense in NYC
There is nothing more powerful than an idea whose time has come, mused French novelist Victor Hugo. He might have added that some ideas come a longer way than others. Policymakers have recently opened up to the idea of policy transfer—borrowing successful innovations from abroad for use at home.
- Organic Cosmetics Break Out
The global cosmetics industry is booming and the organic market is the next frontier. But in a sector built on a foundation of eternal youth, can the claims of organic content be trusted?
- Who's to Blame for Brain Drain?
The lure of wealth and opportunity elsewhere leaves labor-exporting economies in a self-reinforcing bind: How to develop when the best and brightest routinely set out in search of greener pastures?
- Cap and (Fair) Trade
Climate change is rising on the agenda in many world capitals due in part to the emergence of market-based mechanisms and their embrace by both industry and environmental advocates.
- ROUNDTABLE: Blair's Ethical Legacy
"To view Blair through Iraq alone is to ignore his extraordinary legacy in the areas of liberal interventionism, international development and climate change," says Roberts, while Spring praises his triumph in Northern Ireland and distinguishes between Bush's "moralist" foreign policy and Blair's more successful "ethical" approach.
- U.S.-Russia Relations and Climate Change After the G8
Nikolas K. Gvosdev examines the declining effectiveness of the G8 summits and the U.S.-Russian politics of climate change and missile defense that played out at this year's meeting.
- Transatlantic Relations After the G8
Lieven explores the increasing complexity of US-EU-Russian relations due to energy interdependence, stalled eastward expansion of the EU, and the overall diminished power of the West, the delicate balance making it more difficult to resolve issues in places like Kosovo and South Ossetia.
- Splitting the Atomic Energy Debate
Interest in low-emission nuclear energy has mushroomed alongside rising energy prices and fear of climate change. But the picture of a green future is clouded by security concerns over weapons proliferation and stubborn states like Iran, which has so far refused to stop enriching uranium.
- A Turn to Empire: The Rise of Imperial Liberalism in Britain and France [Full Text]
Jennifer Pitts asserts that imperialism was not essential to the liberal project, as is so often alleged by its critics, most recently and systematically by Uday Singh Mehta in his important study "Liberalism and Empire".
- Successful Globalization Needed in Arab World
Over the next decade or so, the Arab world may experience population growth of 150 million people—the equivalent of adding two Egypts. Such rapid labor force growth has contributed to despair among young people regarding their job prospects, and, by extension, concerns about political stability.
- European Energy Security and the Role of Russia
As demand continues to grow, Gernot Erler asks, can Europe persuade Russia to guarantee its future energy needs?
- Rush, Rush, Rush
Directly or indirectly, saving more time means spending more money, and spending more money means more time making it. Yet, from devastating the U.S. economy, Kyoto could be met simply by taking vacations, choosing leisure over labor.
- Open Labor Markets Are Right Signal for Europe
Germany should not impose labor market restrictions on new EU members Bulgaria and Romania, argues Christian Drenth. Given its physical and economic centrality on the new EU map, Germany has a responsibility to lead the way with fair and prosperous policies.
- Murder in Amsterdam: The Death of Theo Van Gogh and the Limits of Tolerance
Ian Buruma explores what happens when political Islam collides with a secular Western European nation.
- Uberpower: The Imperial Temptation of America
International resentment and lack of legitimacy is the high price that America is paying for its imperial ambitions, says Josef Joffe. To repair the damage, the United States needs to resist ideological temptations in its foreign policy and focus on rebuilding alliances and multilateral institutions.
- International Governance of War-Torn Territories: Rule and Reconstruction [Full Text]
In Bosnia-Herzegovina, Eastern Slavonia, Kosovo, and East Timor, the UN or international ad hoc bodies did not just keep the peace. They embarked on the formidable task of rebuilding political authority while acting as de facto governments until that goal was achieved.
- Shaping Race Policies: The United States in Comparative Perspective [Full Text]
This book examines why racial incorporation is successful in some arenas of American public policy—affirmative action has diversified the labor market—while it has failed in others—notably in the area of welfare, where policies have tended to marginalize minorities.
- Islamic Challenge: Politics and Religion in Western Europe
Based on her interviews with over 300 Muslim leaders in Europe, Klausen argues that European Muslims are overwhelmingly liberal in outlook. Their essential goal, she says, is to build a European Islam independent of the Islamic countries.
- Globalized Islam: The Search for a New Ummah
The spread of Islam around the globe has blurred the connection between a religion, a specific society, and a territory, says Roy. This phenomenon is feeding new forms of radicalism.
- Cousins and Strangers: America, Britain, and Europe in a New Century
According to Chris Patten, Europe wants to be a partner to the United States rather than a rival. Meanwhile, America and Europe both need to recognize that they no longer set the global agenda, and that they must work with and through China and India.
- My Italian Mission: Ethical Dilemmas and Lessons for Today
Former U.S. Ambassador Richard N. Gardner discusses the delicate balancing act of diplomacy, politics and practicality in Cold War Italy.
- German Immigration Issues
Germany's Federal Minister of the Interior Otto Schily addresses the problems of integrating immigrants into German society and talks about the progress made, which includes overhauling the Nationality Act for the first time since 1913 and introducing integration courses for new arrivals.
- Genocide and Aftermath: Rationalizing the Process of Truth and Reconciliation in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Transcript of a panel and commemorative event of the 10th anniversary of the massacre at Srebrenica, held at the Museum of Jewish Heritage, in collaboration with the Academy of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and with the Council in an advisory role.
- Ten Years after Srebrenica: Conversation with Haris Hromic
On June 27, 2005, almost exactly ten years after the Srebrenica massacres, CarnegieCouncil.org spoke to Haris Hromic about his pioneering work for the Academy of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
- Sons of the Conquerors: The Rise of the Turkic World
Hugh Pope discusses the past, present, and future of the Turkic world, which stretches from Central Asia to Turkey. His topics include oil, trade, and the question of Turkey and the EU.
- Women's Rights As Cultural Rights: The Case Of The Irish Travellers
Traveller women in Ireland are at the forefront of efforts to promote the cultural rights of their people.
- Cultural Rights In The Age Of The 'War On Terror'
Kristen Ghodsee and Christian Filipov demonstrate the effects of tensions introduced into national Bulgarian politics by the requirements of participation in the European Union and of cooperation with the U.S. war on terror upon the cultural rights of Slavic Muslim Pomaks.
- A European Experiment In Protecting Cultural Rights
Will Kymlicka argues that, as Europe continues to institutionalize its union, the cultural rights approach it has adopted falls short of comprehensively addressing the variable circumstances of minorities across different states.
- Green Giants? Environmental Policies of the United States and the European Union, Norman J. Vig and Michael G. Faure, eds. [Excerpt]
Understanding the ways in which the EU and the U.S. approach issues of global environmental importance can presumably help to predict and guide future environmental action; to that end, the authors attempt to explain the similarities and differences in the respective policies.
- Ethnicity Without Groups, Rogers Brubaker [Excerpt]
This set of essays on various themes in the study of ethnicity and nationalism contains all the virtues of Brubaker's early work: theoretically informed analysis, a sure grasp of comparative European history, and a willingness to explore new fields of enquiry.
- The Rockefeller Foundation in Sardinia: Pesticide Politics in the Struggle Against Malaria
By most accounts within and beyond Italy today, the Rockefeller Foundation freed Sardinia of malaria, catalyzing the island's subsequent economic miracle. Yet malaria is an environmental issue as well as a health concern.
- "Ghost Detainees," Blank Spots, and Torture
"Ghost town, ghost train, ghost writer, and now "ghost detainees"--one of the most chilling phrases to enter our language emerged from revelations about torture at Abu Ghraib Prison in Baghdad and other sites."
- The United States of Europe: The New Superpower and the End of American Supremacy
T. R. Reid discusses the state of European integration and argues that Americans are not aware of the extent to which the EU has turned into a major global player, especially in trade matters.
- New Perspectives on the Transatlantic Alliance
Lionel Barber identifies several crucial tests that will determine the future of the transatlantic alliance.
- Free World: America, Europe, and the Surprising Future of the West
EU-U.S. strategic cooperation is required to tackle the main security challenges of the 21st century.
- The Challenges of Global Migration: An EU View
Vitorino says that a massive migration from east to west within the EU is unlikely and in any case, an influx of third-country nationals might help the EU to address population aging.
- The Ecological Roots of a Democracy Movement
Kilburn and Vanek describe how widespread environmentalism propelled the human rights agenda of a generation of young activists in the former Czechoslovakia.
- The Uses of History: Reflections on the Fall of Yugoslavia
Distinguished sociologist Kai Erikson described his many journeys to the town of Pakrac, in the former Yugoslavia, beginning during the war in 1992, and the interviews he conducted with current and former residents of the town.
- The UN Security Council: From the Cold War to the 21st Century
Malone points out that disagreements among the Permanent Five Security Council members have been confined to just three issues since the end of the Cold War: Israel-Palestine, Kosovo, and Iraq.
- The Future of Humanitarianism
Kouchner argues that the globalization of compassion and human rights is a sign of substantial moral progress that can count some successes--most notably, in Kosovo and East Timor.
- Of Paradise and Power: America vs. Europe in the New World Order (With a New Afterword)
The widening military gap between Europe and the United States has an unavoidable effect, says Robert Kagan. "It is a natural human phenomenon that if you have more power, you are more likely to use it. When you have less power, you are less likely to use it, and also less likely to consider it a legitimate activity."
- Freedom on Fire: Human Rights Wars and America's Response
Shattuck says that the forces unleashed against us on 9/11 were the very forces of disintegration that he witnessed in Rwanda, Bosnia, and Haiti, and are most powerfully evident in the Middle East. He also gives insight into how the Clinton administration's human rights policies evolved.
- A Struggle on Two Fronts
Zehra F. Arat responds to Leylâ Pervizat.
- In the Name of Honor
Women’s rights advocates in Turkey, Leylâ Pervizat writes, are combating the pervasive belief that so-called honor killings do not rise to the level of human rights abuses.
- The Burden of History: World War II Memory and Polish-Jewish Reconciliation
What role does history play in political reconciliation, and what role can historians play in public debates about the past? What can they contribute to the search for state and institutional accountability for historical injustices? Could the work of historians brought together from across the national or ethnic lines of old conflicts be a complement to the work of other institutions such as truth commissions and tribunals? Summary Report on a Meeting for a Historical Commission Project, April 3-5, 2003.
- Democratic Development and Reckoning with the Past: The Case of Spain in Comparative Context
Boyd and Crocker discuss Spain as a case study of the problems raised by the process of development and democratization in a country that must also contend with a difficult past.
- Holding Investors to Account
Kate Geary and Nicholas Hildyard describe how activists in the United Kingdom and Turkey mobilized to stop construction of the Ilisu Dam, a project that was funded by the export credit agencies of nine different countries.
- Democratic Development and Reckoning with the Past: The Case of Spain in Comparative Context
What form does the Spanish collective memory about the civil war take today, and how can we assess the Spanish attempt to reckon with the past in light of the nation's successful transition to a modern European democracy? At this workshop, presentations by Carolyn Boyd and David Crocker explore these issues against the backdrop of Spanish history.
- The End of the American Era: U.S. Foreign Policy and the Geopolitics of the Twenty-first Century
International relations authority Charles Kupchan argues that America ignores Europe at its own peril.
- Turkey: Islamic Secularism or Secular Islam?
Does the election of an Islamist party in Turkey represent a challenge to the secular Turkish system? Council Fellow Ishan Dagi's take on recent political developments and their implications for U.S.-Turkey relations, EU-Turkey relations, and the human rights situation.
- Of Paradise and Power: America vs. Europe in the New World Order
The widening military gap between Europe and the United States has an unavoidable effect, says Robert Kagan. "It is a natural human phenomenon that if you have more power, you are more likely to use it. When you have less power, you are less likely to use it, and also less likely to consider it a legitimate activity."
- Legitimizing the Use of Force in Kosovo
Kosovo was not the first military campaign termed a "humanitarian intervention." But it did rekindle debate on whether and when a state or group of states may use force with the stated aim of preventing or ending widespread and grave violations of fundamental human rights of individuals other than their own citizens.
- The New Killing Fields: Massacre and the Politics of Intervention
Humanitarian intervention does not "belong in the shadows" because it has the moral urgency of self-defense, which puts it ahead of preventive war, say Walzer and Maass.
- A Problem from Hell: America and the Age of Genocide
Why did the United States largely ignore the Rwandan genocide and yet devote endless time to the contemporaneous Bosnian crisis? According to Samantha Power, the reason is "politics, politics, politics."
- Principle versus Pragmatism
Christine Bell argues that in the case of Northern Ireland the division between human rights and “community relations” groups reflects a fundamental disagreement over the root causes of the conflict. Mari Fitzduff responds.
- Rethinking Europe's Future
With the end of the Cold War Europe is once again at a great historical watershed, says David Calleo in this discussion of the history and current state of the European Union. He argues that "Maastricht implies a future where the world is plural, rather than unipolar" and urges the U.S. to pay more attention to developments across the Atlantic.
- Milosevic in The Hague: Trial or Error?
The Milosevic case sends a powerful message to other would-be tyrants that they, too, could be held accountable for their crimes. Yet some find this a worrying trend.
- War Stories: The Search for a Usable Past in the Federal Republic of Germany, Robert G. Moeller [Full Text]
Moeller clearly states that this is a book about the popular representation of the war's effect on Germany and the way that this representation shaped a selective memory of suffering in which German victimhood was the overarching theme.
- The European Union's Foreign Policy: Making a Difference in the World
Chris Patten explains Europe's role in the 21st century and why a multilateralist approach is needed to address "the dark side of globalization."
- Kosovar Youth Learns to Live with Peace
The documentary "A Normal Life" paints a picture of post-war Kosovo through the eyes of its characters, all of whom speak directly to the camera about moving beyond a childhood of conflict and rebuilding their society.
- Considering Elections in Kosovo: Lessons Learned from Bosnia
An edited transcript of remarks delivered by Julie Mertus, an expert on international law and the Balkans, at a 10/16/01 Council-sponsored Balkans Forum at Georgetown University.
- The European Response to Terrorism
How should the European Union respond to the threat of terrorism? Ambassador De Ruyt presents several concrete measures agreed upon by the member states.
- Teaching for Reconciliation: Can Tolerance Towards Former Enemies Be Taught?
Report on an International Faculty Development Seminar held From June 3-5, 2001, in Lublin, Poland, sponsored by the Carnegie Council, Jagiellonian University, and Brama Grodzka.
- The Doctor as Witness
Ten years after he began documenting human rights violations and, ultimately, war crimes by the Serbian authorities, Albanian physician Neshad Asllani had become a full-time human rights advocate and founder of the Kosovo Center for Human Rights.
- Legitimizing the Use of Force in Kosovo [Full Text]
Kosovo captured the attention of policy makers, ethicists, journalists, peace and human rights activists, military analysts, and international relations scholars. Something new happened there. This review covers books by Noam Chomsky, Howard Clark, Michael Ignatieff, and others.
- Kosovo's Little-Known Victims: The Fate of the Roma Following the Entry of NATO Troops
Following the return of the ethnic Albanians to Kosovo in June 1999 and the entry of NATO (KFOR) troops into the province, Albanians conducted a sustained and brutal campaign of ethnic cleansing against Kosovo’s Roma.
- The Fallacy of Neutral Humanitarianism in Bosnia
Workers Aid for Bosnia was criticized by other humanitarian organizations for its political support for a united, multi-ethnic Bosnia. But the more we went into Bosnia, writes Myers, the more critical we became of most of our critics and, above all, of the United Nations and NATO.
- Post-Conflict Institutions That Promote Human Rights: The Human Rights Chamber of Bosnia-Herzegovina
Recent military humanitarian intervention has been based on the need to protect human rights, and a successful military campaign under this banner must assure the protection of these rights. Once hostilities end, however, there are huge obstacles to the success of this task.
- A Credibility Problem in Kosovo: The Undermining of Local Human Rights Culture
The international community’s failure to respond earlier to human rights violations, its refusal to explain its actions in terms of human rights motivations, and its intervention out of step with human rights principles undermined the legitimacy of human rights in Kosovo.
- Was Intervention in Kosovo Just? A Kosovar Perspective
Visoka observes that "despite claims by Serbian politicians and diplomats that this was an internal Yugoslav affair, the international community decided that the situation needed their attention. Everyone in Kosovo certainly feels that the NATO intervention was the right thing to do."
- Casual War: NATO's Intervention in Kosovo [Abstract]
A disturbing question is whether NATO’s action implies that states endowed with the advanced military assets that were brought to bear against Serbia will adopt a casual policy on the conduct of limited war, a policy at odds with the lessons of the twentieth century.
- History of the Present: Essays, Sketches and Dispatches from Europe in the 1990s
"The leaders of Western Europe share a direct responsibility for much of what went wrong in the Eastern half of the continent through the 1990s," argues Timothy Garton Ash.
- The Yugoslav Elections: Predicted Scenarios and the U.S. Response
Balkans forum participants discuss Kostunica's surprise victory and the next steps towards democratic consolidation in Serbia.
- Human Rights in the Aftermath of Kosovo
In the Balkans, where human rights discourse was used to morally justify the loss and destruction of thousands of lives, the human rights language, paradigm, and call to action have become problematic. In the aftermath of Kosovo, the soul of human rights is in search of a new embodiment.
- A Different Kind of Justice: Dealing with Human Rights Violations in Transitional Societies [Abstract]
In "transitional societies" like South Africa and Bosnia, which are currently moving from authoritarianism, and often violent repression, to democracy, questions arise about the appropriate way to deal with serious human rights offenders.
- Is There a Public Philosophy in Central-Eastern Europe? Equity and Distribution 'Then' and 'Now'
After the regime change in Hungary the neoliberal/neoconservative orthodoxy has emerged as the dominant public philosophy, breaking the bonds between and within generations, between the less and the more fortunate.
- Humanitarian Intervention: An Overview of the Ethical Issues [Abstract]
The capacity to focus on the issues of humanitarian intervention signals the maturation of the field of ethics and international affairs.
- "The West" Is Not Only the United States: European Assessments of Human Rights
Peter R. Baehr analyzes the human rights of European nations. These countries continue to contribute to the development of more balanced human rights assessments in the West.
- Ethical Issues for Today
What is the difference between ethics and law? Unlike the law, ethics involves other people, says Elie Wiesel, in this powerful, moving, and wide-ranging talk in 1996. We must be sensitive to the needs of others and constantly ask ourselves if we are doing enough to stand up for victims and care for others, both compatriots and strangers.
- Is There an Islamic Ethic of Humanitarian Intervention? [Abstract]
In the aftermath of the Cold War, Hashmi proposes this as a long overdue moment for reassessing the UN chapter on intervention, reappraising the value of human rights and justice, and most important, including Islamic thought into the new system.
- The Various Roads to a Private Economy
"Entrepreneurs respond whenever you lift restrictions. One can say that the private market economy is a natural state of society."
- An Update on Privatization in the Czech Republic: The Economic Transformation After the Split
"Two years ago there were no private shops in the Czech lands. Now, about 60-70 percent of retail, trade, and services are back in the hands of private entrepreneurs."
- Mass Privatization in Poland: Differences and Similarities with Other Privatization Programs
Mass privatization in Poland may be the solution for sound companies with growth potential that cannot yet attract investors, domestic or foreign.
- From "Confusion Economics" to a Market Economy: The Only Way for Sweden
Sweden must implement radical economic changes. Obstacles to foreign investment, government regulations, state-owned companies, monopolies and discriminatory policies against small businesses must be removed.
- Moral Renewal: The Lessons of Eastern Europe [Abstract]
Nardin uses the Eastern European experience of the late 1980s and the works of Adam Michnik and Vaclav Havel to demonstrate the traditional cosmopolitan Kantian notion of morality in the "appeal to universal human values."
- The New Containment Myth: Realism and the Anomaly of European Integration [Abstract]
Kegley argues for a focus on promoting the success of Russia while using the relative success of European integration as grounds to work within a transnational collaboration framework based on Kennan's initial recommendations.
- The Political Economy of Privatization in Czechoslovakia
"No economic reform is intended in Czechoslovakia - but a total transformation of the economy."
- The American Problem [Abstract]
The author urges the United States to "become the ally of its allies rather than their managing protector," as it has been historically, leaving Europe to take responsibility for its own security.
- The Prudent Cold Warrior [Abstract]
Reinhold Niebuhr's Cold War stance, which he applied to both the USSR and to China, was a middle ground between the harsh amorality of the realists and the overly hopeful liberal view. Sizemore explicates Niebuhr's Chinese position to provide a skeptical criticism of Reagan's Central American policies.
- Superpower Ethics: The Rules of the Game [Abstract]
International systems have historically come in two forms: those based on the balance of power and those of a revolutionary nature, including systems organized around bipolar competition. Stanley Hoffmann finds the world order of 1987 to contain both these systems and judges it both ambiguous and original. To mark Dr. Hoffmann's death on September 13, 2015, this article is free online for a limited time.
- Superpower Ethics: Western European Dilemmas: Man, State, and History [Abstract]
Hassner reflects upon the profound differences among the European views of the superpowers and the challenge the United States and the Soviet Union face in establishing a common ethics.
- Is There An Ethic To NATO? [Abstract]
Phillips suggests ways to reaffirm the rule of law and the commitment to social justice and to build such values into Western foreign policy, rather than use them as public relations tinsel.
- Superpower Ethics: A Third World Perspective [Abstract]
In 1987, the philosophies of a U.S. grounded in political liberalism and a Soviet Union grounded in economic redistribution were at odds. Mazrui argues that each superpower's actions ultimately supported the other's philosophy.
- Helsinki, Human Rights, and the Gorbachev Style [Abstract]
Korey traces the evolution of the dispute over the Helsinki Accord and discusses Gorbachev's uneven attempts to improve the Soviet Union's recognition of human rights.
- Polish Catholicism Under Fire [Abstract]
Despite the restraining force of totalitarianism, Poland's religiosity evolved swiftly in the forty years after the World War II, producing a pope and empowering an enduring and peaceful political movement.
- The Year that was 1963
"Nineteen sixty-three has proved a turbulent and a humbling year....The deaths of two men did most to remind us sharply of the kind of world we live in and the values we hold most dear. Both Pope John XXIII and John F. Kennedy emphasized the use of reason and the necessity for peace, and the need for reason in the pursuit of peace."
- CPU's John R. Inman Goes to Europe
Annual Reports used to be a lot more entertaining! In this excerpt from the 1956 Report, John Inman discusses attending the annual assembly of the World Federation of UN Associations in Geneva with Eleanor Roosevelt, his trip through Italy, and much more.
- Hope Rises from Ashes of World War I: CPU President William Merrill
The first major initiative of the Church Peace Union (now Carnegie Council) was an international conference in southern Germany, opening on August 1, 1914. However, in a bitter irony, Germany invaded Belgium on August 4. CPU president William Merrill explains the mixture of despair and hope with which the CPU faced the outbreak of World War I.
- David P. Calleo
David Calleo is the Dean Acheson Professor and director of European Studies at the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies at Johns Hopkins University.
- Superpower Ethics: An Introduction [Abstract]
Aristotle's "virtue," Kant's "good intent," and the "good result" of the consequentialists are inadequate to determine right on the superpower playing field. In reference to this insufficiency, Nye sketches the arguments of the subsequent articles on the state of superpower ethics.
- Antonio Vitorino
Former EU Commissioner for Justice and Home Affairs.
- Jean De Ruyt
Jean De Ruyt is the former Belgian ambassador to the UN.
- Elizabeth A. Cole
Elizabeth (Lili) Cole is a senior program officer in the Jennings Randolph Fellowship program at the United States Institute of Peace (USIP).
- T. R. Reid
T. R. Reid is Rocky Mountain bureau chief for The Washington Post.
- Timothy Garton Ash
Timothy Garton Ash is Isaiah Berlin Professorial Fellow Professor of European Studies and honorary chair, St Antony's College European Studies Centre, University of Oxford.
- Peacekeeping and Diplomacy in Cyprus, 1964-1993 (Case Study #16)
This case study raises the question: What is the moral and political responsibility of the international community if the Greek and Turkish Cypriots resume the "ethnic cleansing" practices of the 1960s and 1970s?
- A Case Study of Terrorism: Northern Ireland 1970-1990 (Case Study #5)
This case analyzes the "ritualistic" nature of terrorism by the PIRA and counterterrorism by the British authorities, the meaning of nationalism, justification of the use of force, and the cycle of "justice" and "revenge."
- "Ad Fontes": The Question of Rebellion and Moral Tradition on the Use of Force
On the older conception, the sovereign could use force against behavior that he understood as endangering the order, justice, and peace of his political community. But the division of Europe into Protestant and Catholic polities changed that.
- Dominique Moisi
Dominique Moïsi, a founder and senior advisor at the French Institute for International Relations, is currently a professor at the College of Europe in Natolin, Warsaw.
- Rising Fences: Migrants, Borders, and a New Frontier for Ethics
"What will 2015 be remembered for? The image that comes to mind is 'rising fences.' If we took a satellite photo of the planet, that would be the story; fences going up everywhere. The wars and political chaos of the past year created a massive wave of truly desperate people. The wave is global in scale. Europe has borne the brunt. But the United States, Canada, Australia and many other nations are not immune."
- George Weigel
A distinguished senior fellow of Washington's Ethics and Public Policy Center, George Weigel is one of the world's leading authorities on the Catholic Church. He is author of the widely acclaimed biography of Pope John Paul ll, "Witness to Hope."
- Lionel Barber
Lionel Barber is the Financial Times' U.S. managing editor.
- Western Pessimism, Asian Optimism: Three Perspectives on Global Governance
Each of these books underlines the predicaments and challenges of global governance today. Stronger initiatives are urgently needed to provide the opportunities for more positive national action.
- Sovereign Virtues: Aziz Al-Azmeh and Michael Ignatieff on the Failures of Globalization
This article was posted in "Carnegie Reporter" on May 25. The following excerpt is posted with permission from Carnegie Corporation of New York. Michael Ignatieff was Carnegie Council's Centennial Chair. The results of his project for the Council, Global Ethical Dialogues, are the subject of his book, "The Ordinary Virtues," due out in September 2017.
- Laurance Allen
Laurance Allen is editor and publisher of Value News Network.
- Mike J. Thompson
Mike Thompson is cofounder of Good Leaders Online, and visiting professor of management practice at the China Europe International Business School.
- Prahlad Shekhawat
Prahlad Shekhawat is director of the Alternative Development and Research Center in Jaipur, India.
- Sofia Karlsson
Sofia Karlsson is a Carnegie New Leader and joined the GPI Global Internship for spring 2010.
- Midori Okabe
Midori Okabe is a professor at the Sophia University Faculty of Law, Tokyo, Japan.
- Mark Raper
Father Mark Raper SJ is since 2008 the president of the Jesuit Conference of East Asia and Oceania.
- Florian Coulmas
Florian Coulmas is Director of the German Institute for Japanese Studies.
- Christopher Marsh
Christopher Marsh serves as director of the J.M. Dawson Institute of Church-State Studies, as well as director of the Keston Center for Religion, Politics, & Society at Baylor University.
- Martin Khor
Mr. Martin Khor joined South Centre as executive director on March 1, 2009. Prior to this, he was the director of the Third World Network, a leading developing-country civil society organization involved in research and publications in trade, environment, and development issues.
- Jon Templeman
Jon Templeman joined the GPI Global Internship in May 2008. He is a student at the University of Oxford.
- John Schmitt
John Schmitt is a senior research associate with the Center for Economic and Policy Research in Washington, DC. He has written extensively on economic inequality, unemployment, the new economy, the welfare state, and other topics for both academic and popular audiences.
- Ann Roberts
Ann Roberts edited the Financial Times's twice monthly Global Water Report from 1996-2006. She has also written on water issues for the UK's Independent and The Scotsman newspapers, and commented on water matters for BBC radio and television current affairs programs. She has traveled through rural South Africa examining small water projects as well as touring the Palestinian West Bank to report on the dire water situation there.
- Daniel Mittler
Daniel Mittler is Political Director of Greenpeace International, based in Berlin, Germany. He has led Greenpeace's work on trade since 2004.
- Liem Giok In
Liem Giok In is the author of Interdependent Economy: From Political Economy to Spiritual Economy. She received her Master's Degree in economics from the University of St. Gallen (Switzerland) in 1974.
- Kenneth Porter
Kenneth Porter is head of market development in the Alliance for Responsible Mining.
- Tom Bigg
Tom Bigg is head of partnerships at the International Institute for Environment and Development.
- Adam Trexler
Adam Trexler is the president and co-founder of Valaurum, Inc.
- Yuki Hanyu
Yuki Hanyu is a researcher in the Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials at Tohoku University.
- Jean-Philippe Denruyter
Jean-Philippe Denruyter is manager for applied energy solutions at the conservation organization WWF.
- Philip Amaral
Philip Amaral is a Policy and Advocacy Officer at the Jesuit Refugee Service Europe.
- Lucille Pilling
Dr. Lucille B. Pilling is a corporate social responsibility strategist with expertise in corporate sustainability and global public health.
- Sacha Tessier-Stall
Sacha Tessier-Stall is pursuing an M.A. in international security at Columbia University’s School of International and Public Affairs. He joined the GPI Global Internship in October 2007.
- Peter Tillman
Peter Tillman is a recent graduate of the London School of Economics and Political Science. He joined the GPI Global Internship in winter 2008.
- Anja Boenicke
Anja Boenicke is pursuing a Global MBA on a Korean Government Scholarship at Yonsei University, Seoul.
- Adam Dean
Adam Dean was awarded a Rotary Cultural Ambassadorial Scholarship and is currently living in Sucre, Bolivia.
- Annabel Short
- Ivan Pinto
Ivan Pinto received a master's degree in development economics and international project management at Université Paris-Est Créteil.
- Dinara Rafikova
Danira Rafikova is a financial analyst at PlaNis responsAbility.
- William Hoyle
William Hoyle is the founding chief executive of TechforTrade.
- Stephanie Bailey
Stephanie L. Bailey is a project lead in the Center for Health Policy at the Stanford University School of Medicine and an adjunct professor at Dominican University of California.
- Alastair Parvin
Alastair Parvin is an architectural and strategic designer at ARCHITECTURE 00 LIMITED.
- Gabriele Köhler
Gabriele Koehler is a development practitioner based in Munich.
- Ian Higham
Ian Higham is a research assistant at the Institute for International Economic Policy at George Washington University.
- Markus M. Mueller
Markus M. Mueller is assistant professor for social and organizational psychology at Catholic University Eichstaett-Ingolstadt, Germany.
- Andrew Macdonald
Andrew Macdonald is the senior innovation manager at Offshore Renewable Energy Catapult.
- Bernard Salomé
Dr. Bernard Salomé is advisor at the Côte d'Ivoire Presidency and at the State Ministry for Employment, Social Afairs and Solidarity.
- Robin Hodess
Robin Hodess is Director of Policy and Research for Transparency International.
- Juliet Michaelson
Juliet Michaelson is a project manager and researcher at the the new economics foundation centre for well-being.
- John Bunzl
John Bunzl founded the International Simultaneous Policy Organisation, a group that seeks coordinated solutions to global problems.
- Andreas Bummel
Andreas Bummel is founding Chairman and CEO of Democracy Without Borders (formerly Committee for a Democratic U.N.) and coordinator of the international Campaign for a UN Parliamentary Assembly.
- Fan Li
Fan Li is executive director of Global Links Initiative, a nonprofit organization focused on social inclusion and citizen empowerment themes with a Japan-China-United Kingdom dimension.
- David Lempert
Professor Lempert is a California attorney, M.B.A., social anthropologist, educator, author and consultant who has worked in more than 20 countries on five continents since the early 1980s, pioneering new mechanisms in rights, law, education, development work, and social science.
- Robert M. Cutler
Robert M. Cutler is an Energy Security Specialist and Fellow of the Institute of European, Russian, and Eurasian Studies, Carleton University, Ottawa.
- Bryane Michael
Bryane Michael is currently at Linacre College, Oxford, and the American University in Paris as well as serving as a senior advisor to the Ukrainian and Moldovan governments.
- Olivier Kayser
Based in London, Olivier Kayser is Ashoka's vice-president for Europe.
- Gregor Czisch
Dr. Gregor Czisch is a physicist and energy systems expert for Transnational Renewables Consulting in Kassel, Germany.
- Nick Jenkins
Nick Jenkins is a professor and institute leader for the Institute of Energy at Cardiff University, United Kingdom.
- Godfrey Boyle
Godfrey Boyle is a professor emeritus of renewable energy, and the Director of the Energy and Environment Research Unit Faculty of Mathematics, Computing, and Technology at The Open University, United Kingdom.
- Dave Andrews
Dave Andrews is the chairman of the Claverton Energy Research Group.
- David Satterthwaite
David Satterthwaite is a senior fellow at the International Institute for Environment and Development and visiting professor at University College London.
- Zhang Jin
Zhang Jin is the outreach officer at the secretariat of the UN Secretary-General’s High-level Panel on Global Sustainability (GSP).