UNHCR / A. Di Loreto / July 2007. Refugees Risk
Their Lives Traveling from Africa to Europe.

In search of a better life, people around the world are on the move, traveling within their own countries or across national borders.

What are the repercussions, both on their new homes and the ones they leave behind?

Should nations restrict the flow of newcomers? What rights should immigrants have?

The Council presents a selection of resources on the dilemmas and effects of international migration.


The Melting Pot, the Salad Bowl, and the Confucian Ideal
James Farrer, Sophia University, Japan
Noting that internal ethnic and immigration policies are fundamentally linked to foreign policy, Farrer compares the American, European, and Chinese approaches to minorities in their midst. (Policy Innovations, January 2008)

Immigrants: Your Country Needs Them
Philippe Legrain, Journalist and Author
Rather than put obstacles in immigrants' way, we should welcome them. They do the jobs we can't or won't do and their diversity enriches us all. (Public Affairs Lecture, September 2007)

Labor's Comparative Disadvantage
Matthew Hennessey, Carnegie Council
All other factors being equal, a country that does not restrict trade or immigration will be better off than one that does. (Policy Innovations, April 2007)

Immigration, Multiculturalism, and the Welfare State
Will Kymlicka and Keith Banting, Queen's University, Canada
Popular opposition to immigration is rooted in many factors. This essay focuses on one—the fear that the welfare state is being undermined by the impact of increasing ethnic and racial diversity. (Ethics & International Affairs, Volume 20.3, Fall 2006)

United States

Nobodies: Modern American Slave Labor and the Dark Side of the New Global Economy
John Bowe, Journalist and Author
Do labor abuse and outright slavery still exist in the United States? There are cases right in front of us, from Florida to Saipan. (Public Affairs Lecture, October 2007)

Mending America's Broken Fence
Kyle Valenti, Carnegie Council
There are more than 12 million undocumented people in the United States, with thousands more arriving each month. So far, the only consensus seems to be that something should be done. (Policy Innovations, June 2007)


Asylum in the EU: Between Ideals and Reality
Zornitsa Stoyanova-Yerburgh, Managing Editor Ethics & International Affairs
Those who question the moral significance of borders often invoke the EU as a model of post-national belonging. Yet for asylum-seekers, "Fortress Europe" remains a more accurate description. (Carnegie Ethics Online, June 2008)

Open Labor Markets Are Right Signal for Europe
Christian Drenth, Entrepreneur, Germany
Labor market restrictions should not be imposed on new EU members Bulgaria and Romania. In previous EU expansions, countries that maintained open labor policies fared better in terms of growth and employment. (Policy Innovations, February 2007)

The Challenges of Global Migration: An EU View
Antonio Vitorino, Former European Commissioner, Justice and Home Affairs
A massive migration from east to west within the EU is unlikely, and, in any case, an influx of third-country nationals might help the EU to address population aging. (Public Affairs Lecture, May 2004)

German Immigration Issues
Otto Schily, Germany's Former Federal Minister of the Interior
Otto Schily addresses the problems of integrating immigrants into German society and talks about the progress made. (Public Affairs Lecture, November 2005)


Ethics of the Brain Drain in the Developing World: The Case of Philippine Health Professionals
Dr. Federico Macaranas, Asian Institute of Management's Policy Center, the Philippines
Developed countries poach talent from less developed countries like "sharks in the water." Who owns the problem? The individuals, the sovereign nations, or international bodies? (Policy Innovations, July 2007)

Reverse Brain Drain for the Middle East
Marcus Noland, Peterson Institute for International Economics
Michelle Wucker, World Policy Institute
Taiwan and India improved their economies by successfully reversing the brain drain. Can the Middle East do the same, and can public policies contribute to this process? (Policy Innovations, January 2008)

Who's to Blame for Brain Drain?
Matthew Hennessey, Carnegie Council
How can countries develop when the best and brightest routinely set out in search of greener pastures? (Policy Innovations, July 2007)

Remittances Are No Free Lunch
Shiyang Li, Carnegie Council
Migrants and foreign workers are sending money home at increasing rates, but it's unclear whether the effect of these remittances is a net positive or negative. (Policy Innovations, December 2006)


Resources from Ethics & International Affairs

Symposium on the Rights of Irregular Migrants
This discussion features a lead essay by Joseph Carens, and responses from Christina Boswell, David Miller, Bridget Anderson, and Marit Hovdal Moan. (EIA, Volume 22.2, Summer 2008)

On the Morality of Immigration
Mathias Risse, Harvard University
Using the U.S. as a case study, Risse makes a plea for the relevance of moral considerations in immigration debates. The earth belongs to humanity in common, he argues, and immigration must be considered in the context of global justice. (EIA, Volume 22.1, Spring 2008)

Who Should Get in? The Ethics of Immigration Admissions
Joseph H. Carens, University of Toronto
This article explores normative questions about what legal rights settled immigrants should have in liberal democratic states. (EIA, Volume 17.1, Spring 2003)

On the Alleged Conflict between Democracy and International Law
Seyla Benhabib, Yale University
An examination of a German Constitutional Court case which denied long-term resident aliens voting privileges in local and district-wide elections, illuminating the "paradox of democratic legitimacy." (EIA, Volume 19.1, Spring 2005)

Holes in the Rights Framework: Racial Discrimination, Citizenship, and the Rights of Noncitizens
James A. Goldston, Open Society Institute
This essay explores how human rights norms—particularly the body of law that forbids discrimination on grounds of racial or ethnic origin—can be deployed to combat the worst effects of citizenship denial and ill-treatment of noncitizens. (EIA, Volume 20.3, Fall 2006)

Should a Cosmopolitan Worry about the "Brain Drain"?
Devesh Kapur, University of Pennsylvania
John McHale, Queen's University, Canada
Should cosmopolitans worry about the adverse effects on those remaining behind in poor countries? (EIA, Volume 20.3, Fall 2006)