Ethics & International Affairs Volume 34.1 (Spring 2020)

Table of Contents, Volume 34.1 (Spring 2020)

March 27, 2020

The editors of Ethics & International Affairs are pleased to present the Spring 2020 issue of the journal!

The highlight of this issue is a roundtable organized by Alex J. Bellamy entitled "World Peace (And How We Can Achieve It)." The collection considers how states and societies can build and sustain peace, with contributions from Bellamy, Pamina Firchow, Nils Petter Gleditsch, A. C. Grayling, and Jacqui True. Additionally, the issue includes essays by Luke Glanville on the global refugee crisis and denial of hospitality; Mathias Risse on U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo's Commission on Unalienable Rights and its framing of human rights; and Julia Gray on the lifespans of international organizations. It also contains a review essay by Adam Henschke on whistleblowing, and book reviews by Clair Apodaca, Raslan Ibrahim, and John Mueller


ESSAYS 

Hypocritical Inhospitality: The Global Refugee Crisis in the Light of History [Open Access]
Luke Glanville
One of the justifications offered by European imperial powers for the violent subjection of non-sovereign non-Europeans was those peoples' violation of a supposedly natural and enforceable duty of hospitality. Today, many of these same powers take increasingly extreme measures to avoid granting hospitality to refugees and asylum seekers. This essay examines the hypocritical inhospitality of former centers of empire and former settler colonies. 

On American Values, Unalienable Rights, and Human Rights: Some Reflections on the Pompeo Commission
Mathias Risse
In July 2019, Secretary of State Mike Pompeo launched a Commission on Unalienable Rights, which draws on the American Declaration of Independence and natural law to substantiate three key conservative ideas. This essay aims to show that despite Pompeo's framing, the Declaration of Independence is of no help with any of this, whereas evoking natural law is only helpful in ways that reveal its own limitations as a foundation for both human rights and foreign policy in our interconnected age.

Life, Death, Inertia, Change: The Hidden Lives of International Organizations
Julia Gray
The lifespans of international organizations (IOs) can take unexpected turns. This essay outlines the trajectory of IOs and argues that acknowledging a broader continuum of IO lifespans can afford a more nuanced perspective on international cooperation.


ROUNDTABLE: WORLD PEACE (AND HOW WE CAN ACHIEVE IT)

Introduction: Taking World Peace Seriously [Open Access]
Alex J. Bellamy
World peace was once an important subject of debate and discussion. Nowadays, Bellamy argues, it has been largely consigned to the realm of intellectual history. This roundtable introduces different perspectives on world peace and debates the contours of what it means, what it ought to mean, and how it might be achieved.

Thinking About World Peace
Alex J. Bellamy
This essay makes the case for taking world peace more seriously. It argues that world peace is possible, though neither inevitable nor irreversible. It is something that every generation must strive for, because the ideas, social structures, and practices that make war possible are likely to remain with us.

World Peace Is Local Peace
Pamina Firchow
This essay looks in detail at what we mean by "local" in conflict-affected contexts and asks how local is local enough when resolving conflicts and building peace. It presents the Everyday Peace Indicators project as a vehicle that can be used to help communicate these local needs to international actors.

Toward a Social-Democratic Peace?
Nils Petter Gleditsch
Gleditsch makes the case that a social-democratic peace provides the best basis for a lasting world peace. This formula includes democracy and incorporates additional elements that would provide a solid basis for eliminating violence between, as well as within, states. 

Toward Peace
A. C. Grayling
An ideal state of peace might not be attainable, argues Grayling, but a positive form of peace could be achieved on a global scale if states and peoples made a serious investment in promoting the kind of mutual cultural understanding that reduces tensions and divisions and fosters cooperation. Peacemaking that only focuses on diplomatic and military détente is not enough for the best attainable kind of peace.

Continuums of Violence and Peace: A Feminist Perspective
Jacqui True
This essay argues that any vision of world peace must grapple not only with war but with the continuums of violence and peace emphasized by feminists: running from the home and community to the public spaces of international relations. It suggests that war and peace are not a dichotomy but rather are intimately related.


REVIEW ESSAY

Why Would I Be a Whistleblower?
Adam Henschke
There are a strong set of moral reasons why someone ought to blow the whistle when he or she learns of wrongdoing. Yet, such actions typically come at a significant cost to the whistleblower and may not bring about any significant change. This review essay considers Emanuela Ceva and Michele Bocchiola's Is Whistleblowing a Duty? and Kate Kenny's Whistleblowing: Toward a New Theory to answer the question: why would I be a whistleblower?


REVIEWS [All Open Access]

Rescuing Human Rights: A Radically Moderate Approach
Hurst Hannum
Review by Clair Apodaca
With the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948 and the ratification of the nine core international human rights treaties over the subsequent six decades, human rights are no longer a simple matter of internal state affairs. This book posits that this revolution in the international legal system is today threatened by the expansion of the concept of human rights to include many issues and concerns not contemplated by the founders of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

Towards a Westphalia for the Middle East
Patrick Milton, Michael Axworthy, and Brendan Simms
Review by Raslan Ibrahim
This book argues that the Peace of Westphalia, which ended the Thirty Years' War in Central Europe in 1648, could serve as a source of inspiration for new ideas, instruments, and methods for peacemaking in the Middle East today. It presents an original, historical perspective that builds on the similarities and parallels that exist between the Thirty Years' War and the contemporary conflict in the Middle East.

Clear and Present Safety: The World Has Never Been Better and Why That Matters to Americans
Michael A. Cohen and Micah Zenko
Review by John Mueller
It has been said before but cannot really be said too often: By a large number of measures, human welfare has massively improved over the course of the past couple of centuries. Members of what the authors call the "Threat-Industrial Complex" have persistently exaggerated the threats that do exist while inventing quite a few that do not.