The following is a list of Council resources related to the articles in Ethics & International Affairs, Volume 21.2, Summer 2007.

Yvonne Terlingen

The Challenge to International Human Rights
Joanne Bauer, Business and Human Rights Resource Centre
Bauer argues that conflicts over the meaning of human rights occur within and across regions. There is not only a need but also a basis, therefore, for resisting the temptation to view conflicts as occurring primarily across North-South or East-West lines. (Chapter in Constructing Human Rights in the Age of Globalization, M.E. Sharpe, 2003).

Three Challenges for the Human Rights Movement: Darfur, Abu Ghraib, and the Role of the United Nations
Kenneth Roth, Human Rights Watch
Roth uses the cases of Darfur and Abu Ghraib as a foundation to discuss the structural restrictions inherent to the United Nations and the potential responses to future cases of human rights abuse. (Public Affairs Lecture, February 2005)

Rwanda to Darfur
Madeleine Lynn, Carnegie Council
"Never again," promised the world community after the genocide in Rwanda. Yet, today there is systematic killing going on in the Congo and in Darfur. (Article, March 2005)

Adam Branch

National Reconciliation, Transnational Justice, and the International Criminal Court
Juan E. Méndez, International Center for Transitional Justice
Universal jurisdiction and the ICC provide a framework through which true reconciliation can be achieved simultaneously with truth and justice. The ICC and universal jurisdiction can be viewed as setting objective limits on the power of domestic and international actors to seek peace at any cost. (Ethics & International Affairs, Volume 15.1, Spring 2001)

Exempting the United States from Equal Justice under Law
John L. Washburn, Washington Working Group on the International Criminal Court
By failing to approve the ICC statute, the United States is the only democratic country in open opposition to the court. For many years, the United States has sought an exemption from bringing American officials to trial in the International Criminal Court. (Article, April 2001)

A Problem from Hell: America and the Age of Genocide
Samantha Power, Carr Center for Human Rights Policy at Harvard University
Why did the United States largely ignore the Rwandan genocide and yet devote endless time to the contemporaneous Bosnian crisis? According to Samantha Power, the reason is "politics, politics, politics." (Public Affairs Lecture, April 2002)

The Mobilization of Shame: A World View of Human Rights
Robert F. Drinan, S.J., Georgetown University
"We are on the wrong side of history," says Father Drinan, regarding the U.S. opposition to the International Criminal Court. (Public Affairs Lecture, November 2002)

Thomas Hurka

Just Cause for War
Jeff McMahan, Rutgers University
Many will agree that just cause for war is logically and morally above all other requirements for a just war. However, what constitutes a just cause? The central argument of this essay is that a just cause for war is a wrong that warrants military attack as a means of preventing or rectifying it. (Ethics & International Affairs, Volume 19.3, Fall 2005)

Just War?
Joel H. Rosenthal, Carnegie Council; Thomas M. Nichols, U.S. Naval War College; and Jean Bethke Elshtain, University of Chicago
The United States and other developed nations are moving into an era where preventive war is acceptable-although to say so openly is still taboo, says Nichols. However, Elshtain insists, "If force is resorted to, it should be within the just war tradition." The history and principles of just war are also discussed in this debate. (Debate, June 2006)

The Proportionality Principle in Just War
David Mellow, University of Calgary
In addition to having a just cause, a resort to war or use of military force must be proportionate in order to be morally justified. In this essay, Mellow argues for the need of a counterfactual baseline with moral qualifiers when making the proportionality evaluation. (Ethics & International Affairs, Volume 20.4, Winter 2006)

Arguing About War
Michael Walzer, Princeton University's Institute for Advance Study
Walzer rejects the argument that the invasion of Iraq was justified: "It is only massacre or ethnic cleansing or mass enslavement in progress that justifies marching an army into someone else's country. That is what humanitarian intervention is, and that is not what the Iraq war was." (Public Affairs Lecture, October 2004)

What's Wrong With Preventive War? The Moral and Legal Basis for the Use of Preventive Force
Whitley Kaufman, University of Massachusetts Lowell
The legitimacy of preventive war has been at the center of the debate regarding terrorism and the Iraq War. One side has argued for the necessity and legitimacy of preventive war, while the other side has claimed that war is permissible only in self-defense. Kaufman evaluates the terms of the debate and shows that both sides of the discussion have some merit. (Ethics & International Affairs, Volume 19.3, Fall 2005)

Luis Cabrera

The Legitimacy of Global Governance Institutions
Allen Buchanan, Duke University; and Robert O. Keohane, Woodrow Wilson School, Princeton University
The authors discuss a global public standard for the normative legitimacy of global governance institutions. This standard provides the basis for principled criticism, which will ultimately shape the debate surrounding the future role of these organizations. (Ethics & International Affairs, Volume 20.4, Winter 2006)

Promoting Poorer Countries' Interests
Christian Barry, Australian National University; and Sanjay G. Reddy, Barnard College, Columbia University
What can a progressive government in a poorer country do to promote the well-being of its people? What role should rich countries play in supporting the measures taken by poorer countries? The WTO's celebrated rule-based system can be used to promote labor standards in a manner that does not penalize developing countries that improve the lot of their workers, according to Barry and Reddy. (Article, March 2006)

African States, Aggressive Multilateralism and the WTO Dispute Settlement System
Uché U. Ewelukwa, University of Arkansas School of Law
What accounts for the under-utilization of the WTO dispute settlement process by states in Africa? What structural factors currently inhibit the ability of states in Africa to use the DSM to their advantage? What can African states learn from the experience of the developing countries that have used the system? (Carnegie Council Fellow's Paper, August 2005)

Anthony Lang Jr.

Genocide and Aftermath: Rationalizing the Process of Truth and Reconciliation in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Elazar Barkan, Claremont Graduate University; Roy Gutman, Newsday; Donald. S. Hays, U.S. Institute of Peace; Haris Hromic, Lehman Brothers; Charles Ingrao, Purdue University; Mirza Kusljugic, Permanent Representative of Bosnia and Herzegovina to the UN; David Marwell, Museum of Jewish Heritage; H.R.H. Prince Zeid Ra'ad Zeid Al-Hussein, Jordan
This panel discussion, commemorating the 10th anniversary of the massacre at Srebrenica, explores the challenges and strategies of reconciliation and transitional justice.

The Gendered Dimensions of Conflict's Aftermath: A Victim-Centered Approach to Compensation
Sara L. Zeigler and Gregory G. Gunderson, Eastern Kentucky University
International security studies tend to focus on the nature of armed conflict. Now attention has been drawn to the challenge of managing the peace. Specifically, how can the people of a battle-scarred state be assisted in their recovery from the devastation of conflict? (Ethics & International Affairs, Volume 20.2 Summer 2006)

Humanitarian Imperialism: Response to "Ending Tyranny in Iraq"
Terry Nardin, National University of Singapore
In his response to Fernando Teson's two "humanitarian rationales" for the war in Iraq-the "narrow" rationale and the "grand" rationaleNardin argues that both principles strain the traditional understanding of humanitarian intervention. (Ethics & International Affairs, Volume 19.2, Summer 2005)

Revisiting Humanitarian Intervention: Post-September 11
Joe Saunders, Human Rights Watch
The concept of humanitarian intervention has evolved significantly in the aftermath of 9/11. Should Rights NGOs Ever Advocate Armed Intervention in Human rights crises? Has 9/11 adversely affected relations between international and local rights NGOs? What is the proper role of international NGOs in shaping post-conflict institutions? These and other issues are discussed in this workshop report. (Workshop Report, November 2001)