Human Rights Dialogue: "Environmental Rights" (Spring 2004)

May 25, 2004

SECTION 1 The inseparability of human rights and environmentalism

Environmental Rights as a Matter of Survival
Blake Ratner

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Article resources:
Cambodia Department of Fisheries, January 2004, [PDF: 19 pages].

Cambodia Ministry Of Environment, “Cambodia National Environmental Action Plan 1998-2002,” January 1998, [PDF: 76 pages].

United Nations, “Draft Declaration of Principles on Human Rights and the Environment,” Geneva, 1994.

Further reading:
Cambodian Human Rights and Development Association

Chea, Yim and Bruce McKenney, “Great Lake Fish Exports: An Analysis of the Fee System,” Cambodia Development Review 7.3 (July-September 2003), pp.1-6, [PDF: 6 pages].

Degen, Peter, and Nao Thouk, “Historical, Cultural and Legal Perspectives on the Fishing Lot System in Cambodia,” in M. Ahmed and P. Hirsch, eds, Common Property in the Mekong: Issues of Sustanability and Subsistence (Penang, Malaysia: International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management, 2000).

Nielsen, Jesper Raakjær, Poul Degnbol, K. Kuperan Viswanathan, Mahfuzuddin Ahmed, Mafaniso Hara, and Nik Mustapha Raja Abdullah, “Fisheries Co-Management -- an Institutional Innovation? Lessons from Southeast Asia and Southern Africa,” Marine Policy 28.2 (2004), pp.151-160.

Somony, Thay, “Concept of Fisheries Co-Management in Cambodian Context: A Case Study in Fishing Lots #3 and #6, Siem Reap Province, Cambodia,” Thesis, MBA in Business Management in Food and Agricultural Industries, Royal Agricultural College, England, 2002.

Oxfam, “The Process Report on the Public Consultations on the Draft Fisheries Law,” (Phnom Penh, Cambodia: Oxfam: 2002).

World Fish Center

The Ecological Roots of a Democracy Movement
Michael Kilburn and Miroslav Vanek

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Article resources:
Conference for Security and Cooperation in Europe, “Final Act,” Helsinki: August 1, 1975.

Declaration of Charter 77,” 1 January, 1977.

Miroslav Vanek, Nedalo se Tady Dychat (No Breathing Room), Praha: Ustav pro Soudobé D?jiny, 1996.

Mlynarik, Jan. (1994) Ekologia po slovensky: Otazky zivotneho prostredia na Slovensku (1948-1988). (Slovak ecology: Questions on the natural environment in Slovakia) Praha: Danubius. Cited in Miroslav Van?k. (1996). Nedalo se tady dychat (No breathing room). Praha: Ustav pro Soudobé D?jiny AV ?R, 7.

Vanek, Miroslav, “A development of Green opposition in Czechoslovakia: the role of its international contacts,” in Gerd Rainer Horn and Padraic Kenney, eds, Transnational Moments of Change, (New York: Rowman & Littlefield, Inc.,2004) p. 181.

Further reading:
Brontosaurus movement

Czech Union of Conservationists

Kenney, Padraic, A Carnival of Revolution: Central Europe 1989, (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002).

Pavlinek, John Pickles, Environmental Transitions: Transformation and Ecological Defense in Central and Eastern Europe, (Routledge, 2000).

Prague Mothers

Turnock, D. and Francis W. Carter, eds., Environmental Problems in Eastern Europe: The Natural Environment, (Routledge, 1993).

United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, “Declaration on the Human Environment,” Stockholm, 1972.

Vanek, Miroslav, “A Development of Green Opposition in Czechoslovakia: The Role of its International Contacts,” in Transnational Moments of Change, ed. Gerd-Rainer Horn and Padraic Kenney. (New York: Rowman & Littlefield, Inc., 2004) pp. 173 – 187.

Climate Change and Human Rights
Sheila Watt-Cloutier

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Article resources:
Arctic Council

Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA)

Arctic Council, "Impacts of a Warming Arctic, Arctic Council, Arctic Climate Impact Assessment," (2004).

Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program (AMAP)

Arctic Pollution Issue: A State of the Arctic Environment Report, Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme, Oslo, 1997.

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

Inuit Circumpolar Conference (ICC)

Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR)

POPs Treaty Achieves 50th Ratification,” February 18, 2004.

Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants

Further reading:
Taylor, Prudence, An Ecological Approach to International Law: The Challenge of Climate Change, (Routledge, 1998)

Barbara Rose Johnston

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Further Reading:
Johnston, Barbara Rose, ed., Who Pays the Price? The Sociocultural Context of Environmental Crisis (Washington DC: Island Press, 1994)

Johnston, Barbara Rose, "Human Environmental Rights" in Adamantia Pollis and Peter Schwab, eds., Human Rights: New Perspectives, New Realities 2nd ed,. (New York: Praeger Publishers, 2000), pp. 95-103.

Johnston, Barbara Rose, “Notes from the Field: Guatemalan Community Struggles with Chixoy Dam Legacy of Violence, Forced Resettlement,” American Association for the Advancement of Science Report on Science and Human Rights XXIII.3, (Fall/Winter 2003).

SECTION 2 The conflict between rights and environmentalism

When Parks and People Collide
Peter G. Veit and Catherine Benson

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Article resources:
Chape, Stuart, and Simon Blyth, Lucy Fish, Phillip Fox, Mark Spalding, “2003 United Nations List of Protected Areas,” UK, IUCN and UNEP-WCMC, 2003, [PDF: 56 pages].

Colchester, Marcus, “Conservation Policy and Indigenous People in the Commonwealth,” Paper presented to the Conference on Indigenous Peoples of the Commonwealth and the Millenium Development Goals, March 20-21, 2003, [PDF: 40 pages].

Elliot, Fratkin and Tiffany Sher-Mei Wu, “Maasai and Barabaig Herders Struggle for Land Rights in Kenya and Tanzania,” Cultural Survival Quarterly 21.3 (1997).

Gamaya, Kaleb, “Compensation for Land Lost for Protected Areas Management: The Tanzanian Experience,” Presentation to the African Biodiversity Collaborative Group, Washington, D.C., August 2003.

Geisler, Charles C., “Endangered Humans: How Global Land Conservation Efforts are Creating a Growing Class of Invisible Refugees,” Foreign Policy (May 2002).

Geisler, Charles C., Your Park, My Poverty: The Growth of Greenlining in Africa (Mimeo, 2001).

Legal and Human Rights Centre, “Protection of Wildlife and Human Rights on the Balance Sheet: A Case of Serengeti Killings,” (Dar es Salaam: LHRC Publishers, 2003)

Legal and Human Rights Centre, “LHRC Report on the Serengeti Killings."

Mchome, Sifuni Ernest, “Evictions and the Rights of People in Conservation Areas in Tanzania,” (Dar es Salaam: Faculty of Law, 2002).

Shauri, Vincent and Laura Hitchcock, “Wildlife Corridors and Buffer Zones in Tanzania: Political Willpower and Wildlife Management in Tanzania,” (Dar es Salaam: Lawyers’ Environmental Action Team Publications, 1999).

Shauri, Vincent, “Environmental Justice, Human Rights and the Environment: A Discussion note with scattered examples from Tanzania,” 2003.

Shivji, Issa G., “Not yet Democracy: Reforming Land Tenure in Tanzania,” UK, International Institute for Environment and Development, HAKIARDHI, and the Faculty of Law at the University of Dar es Salaam, 1998.

Tenga, Ringo, “Legislating for Pastoral Land Tenure in Tanzania: The Draft Land Bill".

Tenga, Ringo, “Legitimizing Dispossession: The Tanzanian High Court’s Decision on the Eviction of Maasai Pastoralists from Mkomzai Game Reserve,” Cultural Survival Quarterly 22.4 (1999).

Tenga, Ringo, “Processing a Land Policy: The Case of Mainland Tanzania".

The Ministry of Lands, Housing, and Urban Development, Government of the United Republic of Tanzania in cooperation with The Scandinavian Institute of African Studies, Uppsala, Sweden, “Report of the Presidential Commission of Inquiry into Land Matters. Volume 1: Land Policy and Land Tenure Structure,” (Sweden, Bohuslaningens Boktryckeri, Uddevalla, 1994)

Veit, Peter and G. Banda, A. Brownell, M. Dhliwayo, P. Galega, G. Kanja, R. Nshala, B. Ochieng, A. Salomao, and G. Tumushabe, Serving Constituents, Servicing Nature: Legislative Representation and Natural Resource Politics in Africa, Unpublished Manuscript 7/7/03 Mimeo, (Washington D.C.: World Resources Institute, Forthcoming in 2004).

Further Reading:
Cernea, Michael M. and Kai Schmidt-Soltau, “National Parks and Poverty Risks: Is Population Resettlement the Solution?” October 2003.

Colchester, Marcus, “Conservation Policy and the Indigenous Peoples of the Commonwealth,” Paper Presented to the Conference on Indigenous Peoples of the Commonwealth and the Millennium Development Goals, Commonwealth Policy Studies Unit, Institute of Commonwealth Studies, University of London, Mimeo, March 20-21.

Hebert, Laura and Sharon Healey, “Coercive Conservation Practices in Sub-Saharan Africa,” Prepared for the International Human Rights Advocacy Center, Mimeo.

Hulme, David and Marshall Murphree, eds, African Wildlife and Livelihoods: The Promise and Performance of Community Conservation, (Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 2001). Land Compensation Policy: A Case for Uganda,” Paper prepared for the African Biodiversity Collaborative Group, Washington, D.C., 2004.

“The Kalahari San: Self-Determination in the Desert,” Cultural Survival Quarterly 26.1 (Spring 2002).

Okuth-Ogendo, H.W.O., “Land Policy Development in East Africa: A Survey of Recent Trends,” Regional Overview Paper for the DFID Workshop on ‘Land Rights and Sustainable Development in Sub-Saharan Africa,’ Berkshire, England, February 16-19, 1999.

Rutten, M. M. E. M., “Selling Wealth to Buy Poverty: The Process of the Individualization of Landownership Among the Maasai Pastoralists of Kajiado District, Kenya 1890-1990,” Nijmegen Studies in Development and Cultural Change 10 (1992).

Seymour, Frances J., “Conservation, Displacement, and Compensation,” Draft Mimeo, December 12, 2003.

Shibji, Issa G. and Wilbert B Kapinga, “Maasai Rights in Ngorongoro, Tanzania,” UK, International Institute for Environment and Development/HAKIARDHI, 1998.

United Nations Environment Program World Conservation Monitoring Center

World Resources Institute

Workers’ Rights and Pollution Control in Delhi
Kelly D. Alley and Daniel Meadows

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Article resources:
Baviskar, Amita, “Toxic Citizenship: Environmental Activism, the Public Interest, and Delhi’s Working Class” (in forthcoming book edited by Joanne Bauer).

Delhi Social Rights Forum, “The Day After,” July 1997.

M.C. Mehta v. the Union of India No. 4677, 1985.

Further reading:
Anderson, Michael R., “Individual Rights to Environmental Protection in India,” in A. Boyle and M. Andersen, eds, Human Rights Approaches to Environmental Protection (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998), pp. 199-255.

Balasubramaniam, Vejai, “Environment and Human Rights: A New Form of Imperialism?” Political and Economic Weekly, February 21, 1998, pp. 389-90.

Environment Support Group

Freund, Charles Paul, “A Riot of Our Own,” Reason, 32.10 (March 2001).

Jariwala, C. M., “The Directions of Environmental Justice: An Overview,” in S. K. Verma and Kusum, eds, Fifty Years of the Supreme Court of India (New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2000), pp. 469-94.

Parthasarathy, D., “Judge as Administrator,” Economic and Political Weekly, January 20, 2001, pp. 247-48

Shiva, Vandana, “The Closure of Delhi’s non-polluting units is not an environmental victory, it is a human rights disaster,” (Press Release, December 23, 2000).

Toxics Link

Environmental Rights vs. Cultural Rights
Alison Renteln

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Article Resources:
Alonso-Zaldivar, R., “Agents Arrest Reptile Dealer in Trade Sting,” Los Angeles Times, September 16, 1998, pp. A1, A8.

Brooke, James, “Agency Struggles to Meet the Demand for a Sacred Treasure,” New York Times, November 25, 1996, pp. A8.

Scheiber , Harry N., “Historical Memory, Cultural Claims, and Environmental Ethics in the Jurisprudence of Whaling Regulation,” Ocean & Coastal Management 38 (1998), pp. 5-40.

U.S. v. Tomono, U.S. Ct of Appeals, 11th Circuit, 1998 U.S. App. LEXIS 12660, 143 F.3d 1401.

Yanomami Case, Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, Case 7615 (Brazil), Resolution No. 12/85, March 5, 1985. Published in the Annual Report of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights 1984-1985 Washington, D.C. 1981. OEA/Ser.L/V/II.66, doc. 10 rev.1 Oct. 1st 1985.

Further reading:
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)

Gaski, Andrea, and Kurt Johnson, Prescription for Extinction: Endangered Species and Patented Oriental Medicines in Trade, TRAFFIC International, 1994.

Gillespie, Alexander, International Environmental Law, Policy, and Ethics (Oxford, 1997).

International Whaling Commission

Kalland, Arne, and Brian Moeran, Endangered Culture: Japanese Whaling in Cultural Perspective (Copenhagen: Nordic Institute of Asian Studies, 1990).

Joanne Bauer

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Article resources:
Lee, Douglas B., “Okavango Delta: Old Africa’s Last Refuge,” National Geographic (December 1990), 38-69.

SECTION 3 The relationship between environmental rights and environmental justice

“The Chixoy Dam Destroyed Our Lives”
Monti Aguirre

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Article Resources:
Chen, Carlos, “The Chixoy Dam Case,” Testimony before the World Commission on Dams, August 1999.

Commission for Historical Clarification, “Guatemala: Memoria del Silencio,” 1999.

Further reading:
Centre on Housing Rights and Evictions, Continuing the Struggle for Justice and Accountability in Guatemala: Making Reparations a Reality in the Chixoy Dam Case (Geneva: COHRE, 2004).

Colajacomo, Jaroslava, “The Chixoy Dam in Guatemala and the Maya Achi’ Genocide

International Rivers Network

Rights Action

PBS documentary: “Discovering Dominga

The Working Group on Multilateral Institution Accountability, “The Chixoy Dam and the Massacres at Rio Negro, Agua Fria and Los Encuentros: A Report on Multilateral Financial Institution Accountability,” Submitted to the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. Woodrow Wilson School, Princeton University.

Witness for Peace, "A People Dammed: The Impact of the World Bank Chixoy Hydroelectric Project in Guatemala.”

World Commission on Dams

Twilight People: Iraq’s Marsh Inhabitants
Sayyed Nadeem Kazmi and Stuart Leiderman

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Article resources:
Arundel, John, “Refugees say Saddam is still killing foes; brutal purges by troops reported in Basra,” The Washington Post 114, May 10, 1991, p. A28.

Clark, Peter and Sean Magee, eds., The Iraqi Marshlands: A Human and Environmental Study, (London: Politico, 2002).

Dellapenna, Joseph W., “The Iraqi Campaign Against The Marsh Arabs: Ecocide As Genocide,” Jurist , January 31, 2003.

Horwitz, Tony and Craig Forman, “Southern Iraq is ablaze with protests, challenging Saddam’s grip on the region; refugees, U.S. intelligence report riots in cities, many with Islamic slant,” The Wall Street Journal, March 5, 1991, p. A3.

Iraqi Human Rights Group, “Iraq’s ‘Plan for the Marshes,’” (facsimiles of Iraqi Regime Documents, February 8, 1989).

Kempster, Norman. “U.S. sees signs of Iraqi action against Shiites,” Los Angeles Times 111, Aug 31,1992, p. A4.

Pearce, Fred. “Draining life from Iraq’s marshes,” New Scientist 138.1869, April 1993, p. 11.

United States Agency for International Development, “Iraq Reconstruction: Environmental Protection and Natural Resource Management,” (Factsheet, March 21, 2003).

United States Agency for International Development, “Iraq Reconstruction and Humanitarian Relief: Weekly Update #16,” January 27, 2004, pp. 9-10, [PDF: 15 pages].

van der Stoel, Max, Interview in Saddam's Killing Fields, Chris Jeans, director (Maya Vision International, 1993).

Further reading:

Basu, Paroma, “Paradise regained? A plan to restore Iraq's wetland graveyard,” The Village Voice, May 21-27, 2003.

Human Rights Watch, “Endless Torment: The 1991 Uprising in Iraq and Its Aftermath,” 1992, [PDF: 70 pages].

Iraq Document and Documentation Project,“Eyewitness Accounts from the International Press,” The Iraq Foundation

Natsios, Andrew S., “Iraq's Marsh Arabs: Remarks to Brookings Institution,” U.S. Agency for International Development, May 7, 2003.

Partow, Hassan, “The Mesopotamian Marshlands: Demise of an Ecosystem,” U.N. Environment Programme, Geneva, 2001, [PDF: 58 pages].

Thesiger, Wilfred, “Marsh dwellers of Southern Iraq: Primitive Ma'dan building cathedral-like houses of reeds, share a water domain with buffaloes and wild boars,” National Geographic 113, February 1958, pp. 204-239.

United Nations, “Draft Declaration of Principles on Human Rights and the Environment,” Geneva, 1994.

U.N. Environment Programme, “Garden of Eden in Southern Iraq likely to disappear completely in five years unless urgent action taken,” 2003.

van der Stoel, Max, “Report on the situation of human rights in Iraq,” prepared by Mr. Max van der Stoel, Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human rights,” 1993. [PDF: 117 pages]

Young, Gavin, “Water dwellers in a desert world,” National Geographic 149 (April 1976), pp 502-523.

Mining a Sacred Land
Abigail Abrash Walton

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Article resources:
“Arti Tanah Bagi Suku Amungme,” Kompas, September 25, 1995 English translation, and citation in M. Easton, Land Tenure Issues Surrounding the PT Freeport Indonesia Concession in Irian Jaya, unpublished manuscript (on file with authors).

Development Aggression: Observations on Human Rights Conditions in the PT Freeport Indonesia Contract of Work Areas," Robert F. Kennedy Memorial Center for Human Rights, Washington, DC, July 2002.

Project Underground, "Risky Business: The Grasberg Gold Mine - An Independent Annual Report on PT Freeport Indonesia," (Berkeley: Project Underground, April 1998).

Further Reading:
Abrash, Abigail, “Development Aggression: Observations on Human Rights Conditions in the PT Freeport Indonesia Contract of Work Areas,” Robert F. Kennedy Memorial Center for Human Rights, Washington, DC, July 2002.

Allard K. Lowenstein International Human Rights Clinic, Yale Law School, “Indonesian Human Rights Abuses in West Papua: Application of the Law of Genocide to the History of Indonesian Control,” December 2003, [PDF: 78 pages].

Coomaraswamy, Radhika, “Mission to Indonesia and East Timor on the Issue of Violence against Women: Report of the Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women, its Causes and Consequences,” UN Economic and Social Council, E/CN.4/1999/68/Add.3, 21 January 1999.

Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples

Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, “Proposed American Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples

International Labor Organization’s Convention Concerning Indigenous and Tribal Peoples in Independent Countries

“Mining Indigenous Lands: Can Impacts and Benefits be Reconciled,” Cultural Survival Quarterly 25.1 (March 2001).

Mineral Policy Institute f

Moving Mountains: Communities Confront Mining and Globalization, Evans et al. eds., (Sydney: Oxford Press, 2001), and (London: Zed Books, 2002).

Project Underground

A Report of the Catholic Church of Irian Jaya, “Violations of Human Rights in the Timika Area of Irian Jaya, Indonesia,” Jayapura, August 1995.

Robert F. Kennedy Memorial Center for Human Rights

SECTION 4 The enforceability of environmental rights

A Nascent Agenda for the Americas
Jorge Daniel Taillant

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Article resources:
Additional Protocol to the American Convention on Human Rights in the Area of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, “The Protocol of San Salvador,” November 17, 1998.

Awas Tingni Mayagna (Sumo) Indigenous Community v. the Republic of Nicaragua, Inter-American Court of Human Rights, August 31, 2001. Amicus Brief, Sentence (in Spanish[PDF: 119 pages]).

Organization of American States (OAS) Resolutions on Human Rights and Environment,
Resolution 1819, 2001
Resolution 1896, 2002
Resolution 1926, 2003

Yanomami Case, Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, Case 7615 (Brazil), Resolution No. 12/85, March 5, 1985. Published in the Annual Report of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights 1984-1985 Washington, D.C. 1981. OEA/Ser.L/V/II.66, doc. 10 rev.1 Oct. 1st 1985.

Further reading:
Bordenave, Sofia, and Romina Picolotti, “Informe sobre derechos humanos y medio ambiente en América,” CEDHA, 2002.

Bordenave, Sofia, and Romina Picolotti, “La Responsabilidad Internacional del Estado por violaciones de derecho ambiental desde una perspectiva de derechos humanos: El Rol del Poder Judicial,” CEDHA, 2002.

Bordenave, Sofia, and Romina Picolotti, “The Enforcement of Environmental Law from a Human Rights Perspective,” CEDHA 2002.

Centro de Derechos Humanos y Ambiente (CEDHA) – the Center for Human Rights and the Environment

Indian Law Resource Center

Picolotti, Romina, and J.D. Taillant, eds, Linking Human Rights and Environment, (Arizona Press, 2003).

Taillant, Jorge Daniel, “A Rights Based Approach to Development,” Presentation to the World Social Forum Seminar on Globalization and Human Dignity, March 2, 2002.

Taillant, Jorge Daniel, “Environmental Advocacy and the Inter-American Human Rights System,” CEDHA Working Paper, 2001.

Taillant, Jorge Daniel, “Human Rights and Sustainable Development: A View from the Americas,” February 2003.

Environmental Rights Enforcement in U.S. Courts
Hari M. Osofsky

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Article resources:
Amlon Metals, Inc. v. FMC Corp., 775 F. Supp. 668 (S.D.N.Y. 1991)

Aguinda v. Texaco, 303 F.3d 470 (2nd Cir. 2002)

Beanal v. Freeport-McMoran, Inc., 197 F.3d 161 (5th Cir. 1999)

Filartiga v. Pena-Irala, 630 F.2d 876 (2d Cir. 1980)

Flores v. Southern Peru Copper Corp., 343 F.3d 140 (August 29, 2003)

Sarei v. Rio Tinto, 2002 QL 1906814 (C.D. Cal.)

Sosa v. Alvarez-Machain, 124 S.Ct. 807 (Dec. 1, 2003) (granting cert.). and U.S. v. Alvarez-Machain, 124 S.Ct. 821 (Dec. 1, 2003) (granting cert.)

Further reading:
Cohan, John Alan, “Environmental Rights of Indigenous Peoples under the Alien Tort Claims Act, the Public Trust Doctrine and Corporate Ethics, and Environmental Dispute Resolution,” UCLA Journal of Environmental Law and Policy 20 (2001/2002), p. 133.

Herz, Richard L., “Litigating Environmental Abuses Under The Alien Tort Claims Act: A Practical Assessment,” Virginia Journal Of International Law 40 (Winter 2000), p. 545.

Khokhryakova, Anastasia, “Beanal V. Freeport-Mcmoran, Inc.: Liability Of A Private Actor For An International Environmental Tort Under The Alien Tort Claims Act,” Colorado Journal Of International Environmental Law And Policy Summer 9 (1998), p. 463.

Lambert, Lisa, “Using The Alien Tort Claims Act To Hold Multinational Corporate Violators Of International Laws Accountable In U.S. Courts,” Journal Of Transnational Law And Policy 10 (Fall 2000), p. 109.

Osofsky, Hari M. “Environmental Human Rights Under The Alien Tort Statute: Redress For Indigenous Victims Of Multinational Corporations,” Suffolk Transnational Law Review 20 (Summer 1997), p. 335.

Steinhardt, Ralph G. and Anthony D'Amato, eds., The Alien Tort Claims Act: An Analytical Anthology (Transnational Publishers,1999).

Stephens,Beth and Michael Ratner, International Human Rights Litigation in U.S. Courts, (Transnational Publishers, Inc.,1996).

Defending Environmental Defenders
Folabi K. Olagbaju and Stephen Mills

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Article resources:
Amnesty International, “ Environmentalists under Fire: Six Urgent Cases of Human Rights Abuses,” February 20, 2003, [PDF:32 pages]

McCloskey, Mike, "Environment and Human Rights: Why Should We Be Involved, and How Far Should We Go?" Amnesty International, Sierra Club and TransAfrica, (Internal Discussion Paper, August 1996).

Further reading:
Amnesty International USA

Defending the Defenders” campaign

International Right to Know Initiative

Okonta, Ike and Oronto Douglas, Where Vultures Feast: Shell, Human Rights, and Oil in the Niger Delta, (New York: Random House Inc., 2001).

Robinson, Mary, World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg, Personal Remarks, 2002.

Sierra Club


Wiwa Jr., Ken, In the shadow of a saint: a son's journey to understand his father's legacy, (Vermont: Steerforth Press, 2001).

Betsy Apple

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Article resources:
Beanal v. Freeport-McMoran, Inc., 969 F. Supp. 362, 370 (E.D. La. 1997), aff'd 197 F.3d 161 (5th Cir. 1999).

In re Estate of Ferdinand Marcos Human Rights Litig., 25 F.3d 1467, 1475 (9th Cir. 1994)

Further reading:
Bradley, Curtis A. & Jack L. Goldsmith III, “The Current Illegitimacy of International Human Rights Litigation,” Fordham Law Review 66, (1997) pp. 319, 359.

Herz, Richard L., “Litigating Environmental Abuses Under the Alien Tort Claims Act: A Practical Assessment,” Virginia Journal of International Law 40, (2000), p. 545

Popovich, Neil A.F., “Pursuing Environmental Justice with International Human Rights and State Constitutions,” Stanford Environmental Law Journal 15, (1996), p. 338

Schwartz, Michelle Leighton, “International Legal Protection for Victims of Environmental Abuse,” Yale Journal of International Law 18 (1992), pp. 355, 374.


Environmental Protection in the United States: A Right, a Privilege, or Politics?
Aimée Christensen

Further Reading:

Kennedy, Robert F. Jr., “The Junk Science of George W. Bush,” The Nation, March 8, 2004

Orr, David W., “Law of the Land,” Orion (January/February 2004).

Report Finds Reverse Environmental Justice by Bush EPAGreenWatch Today, March 10, 2004.

The Mercury Policy Project

The Union of Concerned Scientists, “Restoring Scientific Integrity in Policy Making,” February 19, 2004.