This issue contains a special section on legitimate authority, war, and the ethics of rebellion, with contributions from Christopher J. Finlay, Jonathan Parry, and Pål Wrange; essays by Yvonne Terlingen on reforming the UN secretary-general selection process and by Celia Medrano on de facto refugees in the Northern Triangle of Central America; a feature by Lior Erez on motivating soldiers to fight in cosmopolitan wars; a review essay on international security norms by Denise Garcia; and book reviews by Don Scheid and Jochen Prantl.
A Better Process, a Stronger UN Secretary-General: How Historic Change Was Forged and What Comes Next [Full Text]
In the past, UN secretaries-general were chosen on the basis of a haphazard and secretive process behind closed doors. Yet over the last two years, the UN forged dramatic change and created a more open, transparent, and inclusive selection process. This essay explores why and how reform finally happened, and what comes next.
Securing Protection for De Facto Refugees: The Case of Central America's Northern Triangle
The Northern Triangle of Central America is one of the most violent regions of the world. However, those fleeing the violence are unable to find adequate protection either within their own countries, in the broader region, or internationally. This essay calls for updating the definition of the term "refugee" under international law, as well as greater domestic recognition of the violence.
Pro Mundo Mori? The Problem of Cosmopolitan Motivation in War
In this feature article, Lior Erez explores the problem of motivating soldiers to fight in cosmopolitan wars. First, he argues that the problem is best framed as a political one rather than an ethical or meta-ethical one. Then, he goes on to suggest how states might close the gap between cosmopolitan demands and soldiers' motivations, evaluating a range of options.
SPECIAL SECTION: LEGITIMATE AUTHORITY, WAR, AND THE ETHICS OF REBELLION
Introduction [Full text]
Christopher J. Finlay, Jonathan Parry, and Pål Wrange
The three articles in this special section all investigate the idea that considerations of "legitimate authority" have a key role in constituting the modern idea of war and in determining the normative status of those who participate in it.
Legitimate Authority and the Ethics of War: A Map of the Terrain
In this article, Jonathan Parry challenges both the traditional conception of the legitimate authority criterion as well as those reductivists who reject it wholesale. Specifically, he offers a qualified defense of the authority requirement on reductivists' own terms.
Does Who Matter? Legal Authority and the Use of Military Violence
In this article, Pål Wrange demonstrates that in international law there is no consistent, over-arching conception of proper authority. Instead, he concludes, there exists authority to do different things for different purposes, allocated to a variety of actors who base their authority on a multitude of characteristics.
The Perspective of the Rebel: A Gap in the Global Normative Architecture
Christopher J. Finlay
In this article, Christopher Finlay writes that the failure to take account of what he calls the "Rebel Perspective" constitutes a source of instability within the global normative architecture governing the use of force. Because this architecture is nevertheless valuable, he proposes some suggestions for strengthening it by incorporating the Rebel Perspective.
Shifting International Security Norms
In this review essay, Denise Garcia draws on two recent books to argue that new technology can reinforce security norms just as easily as it can undermine them. Additionally, she shows that contestation is a natural part of the process by which norms are reformed or replaced, and that this leads to ethical progress over the long term.
REVIEWS [Full text]
Preventive Force: Drones, Targeted Killing, and the Transformation of Contemporary Warfare
Kerstin Fisk and Jennifer M. Ramos, eds.
Review by Don Scheid
This collection of eleven original articles presents a wide variety of perspectives on what the moral and legal framework for preventive use of force by drones should look like. The most important chapter, however, thoughtfully questions the entire premise of using preventive force to combat terrorism.
Rethinking the New World Order
Review by Jochen Prantl
This book provides an elegant account of the nature and inherent tensions in global order. By engaging with ongoing theoretical debates between liberal optimists and skeptical realists, the author seeks to bridge many divides in the field of international relations.