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Special Section: Twenty Years of Michael Walzer's Just and Unjust Wars
Just and Unjust Wars Revisited (Introduction)
As the following papers demonstrate, Michael Walzer’s Just and Unjust Wars continues to provoke thought and debate two decades after its publication. The book remains widely taught in college courses and is cited whenever the morality of war is discussed.
Growing Up With Just and Unjust Wars: An Appreciation [Abstract]
Smith provides a summary of Walzer's work, with particular emphasis on his method of moral argument. Walzer's argument emphasizes the importance of moral judgment based on the principle of human rights rather than on utilitarian calculation.
In Defense of Realism: A Commentary on Just and Unjust Wars [Abstract]
Hendrickson takes issue with Walzer's treatment of intervention, self-determination, and the legitimate aims of war, stating that Walzer's framework is permissive and ambiguous and using such a just war theory may lead to significant problems.
Noncombatant Immunity in Michael Walzer's Just and Unjust Wars [Abstract]
Issues of immunity from attack and the assignment of responsibility for civilian deaths are central to the modern war convention. Koontz addresses several difficulties with Walzer's treatment of noncombatant immunity in Just and Unjust Wars.
Just and Unjust Wars: Casuistry and the Boundaries of the Moral World [Abstract]
Joseph Boyle discusses deontology, which derives precepts from moral principles, particularly making a case with reference to Alan Donagan's The Theory of Morality, which appeared the same year as Just and Unjust Wars.
A Response [Abstract]
Responding to the critiques of the four previous authors, Walzer opens with a statement of the inherent imperfection of any theory of war. He reminds us that theories are merely frameworks for decisions and cannot provide answers in and of themselves.
The Politics of Rescue
The Politics of Rescue: Yugoslavia's Wars and the Humanitarian Impulse [Abstract]
Asserting that humanitarian intervention is a highly ambiguous principle, Pasic and Weiss warn of the dangers of politically driven rescues that often force trade-offs between the pursuit of rescue and political order.
NGOs and the Humanitarian Impulse: Some Have It Right [Abstract]
In a response to Pasic and Weiss, Natsios supports the authors' critique of the unintended political consequences of relief interventions but takes issue with their portrayal of the International Committee of the Red Cross, asserting that the authors misrepresent the doctrine of the ICRC.
An Emergency Response System for the International Community: Commentary on The Politics of Rescue [Abstract]
In his response to "The Politics of Rescue," Winston argues that the real dilemma facing the international system is not a question of what form intervention will take, but rather a question of the existence of political will to act on the humanitarian impulse.
Holding Humanitarianism Hostage: The Politics of Rescue [Abstract]
Destexhe expands upon the discussion begun in " The Politics of Rescue," stating that the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, in choosing a humanitarian route rather than a political one, further enabled ethnic cleansing and prolonged the conflict in the Balkans.
When is it Right to Rescue? A Response to Pasic and Weiss [Abstract]
Arguing that humanitarian agencies cannot always actively pursue political agendas, Mapel argues that in deciding whether there is an obligation to intervene, the nature of the conflict, the costs and risks of intervention, and other factors must all be taken into consideration.
Tribe, Nation, World: Self-Identification in the Evolving International System [Abstract]
Appeals to nationalism based on a common sociocultural, geographic, and linguistic heritage are reactions against expansions of trade, information, and power - and anomie and xenophobia can be countered by giving substatal ethnicities, minorities and political parties a voice and a vote.
Modernity and Minority Nationalism: Commentary on Thomas Franck [Abstract]
Kymlicka asserts that Franck overstates the dichotomy of so-called romantic tribal nationalism and traditional nationalism as seen in the United States and France, which Franck claims is liberal, inclusive, and based on political principles rather than blood lines.
Continuing the Conversation on Chinese Human Rights [Abstract]
Discussing the history of universal human rights and Confucian values, Ames asserts that a growing dialogue between China and the United States would benefit China in terms of political and individual rights and the United States in terms of a greater sense of civic virtue.
Conversing with Straw Men While Ignoring Dictators: A Reply to Roger Ames [Abstract]
Donnelly asserts that Ames has misrepresented his arguments, creating a straw man from Ames's own preconceived notion of the Western liberal tradition while ignoring the substantive debates.
Reconstructing Rawls's "Law of Peoples" [Abstract
Paden finds Rawls's new theory inadequate in its response to communitarian criticisms advocating a different theory of good than that of liberal societies. Paden goes back to "A Theory of Justice" to state that all societies seek one good - the protection of their just institutions.
State Prerogatives, Civil Society, and Liberalization: The Paradoxes of the Late Twentieth Century in the Third World [Abstract]
Monshipouri examines three paradoxes in the conflict between the legal-political global order and the growth of civil society in the international system: state-building vs. democratization; economic liberalization vs. political liberalization; and human rights vs. state sovereignty.
Hans Morgenthau's Realism and American Foreign Policy [Abstract]
Analyzing Morgenthau's Politics Among Nations, Myers provides a point-by-point discussion of his theory, concluding that the relevance of realism will be seen particularly in the search for a new balance of power in the post-Cold War world.
The United States and the Genocide Convention: Leading Advocate and Leading Obstacle [Abstract]
Korey provides a description of the long struggle for ratification of the Genocide Convention, detailing decades of work by a committee of fifty-two nongovernmental organizations lobbying the Senate and the American Bar Association, the treaty's key opponent.
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