Toward Peace with Justice: One Hundred Years of the Carnegie Council (Full-length Book) This compelling book offers a fresh perspective on the Council's first 100 years, placing its story in the context of 20th century American and world history. Historian Kate Hallgren clarifies the difficult choices and conflicts surrounding the Council and its leaders' commitment to ethical behavior in the midst of conflict, from 1914 to the present.
Michael Ignatieff in Conversation with Paul Holdengräber at the NYPL | 11/20/14 Carnegie Council Centennial Chairman Michael Ignatieff, a Canadian writer, teacher, and former politician, discusses his life, his work, and the Council's Centennial project, Ethics for a Connected World.
Winners of the 2014 International Student Photo Contest, Fairness and Its Opposite | 11/10/14 Carnegie Council congratulates the winners of the 2014 International Student Photo Contest, "Fairness and Its Opposite." The theme is deliberately very broad, and the judges were delighted to see the wide range of creative and thoughtful interpretations.
Global Ethics and the Point of View of the Universe | 11/07/14 Sidgwick's concept of looking at issues from "the point of view of the universe"--in other words, giving equal weight to everyone's interests, irrespective of who they are, now or in future--can be the basis for a global ethic, says utilitarian philosopher Peter Singer. He goes on to explain what this means for all of us in practical, concrete terms.
Free for a Limited Time! New E-Book Publication, "Ethics for a Connected World: The Carnegie Council Centennial Roundtables" | 11/06/14 This publication is a special collection of seven roundtables in honor of the Carnegie Council Centennial. They explore the concept of a global ethic; the ideal of peace; the justness of war; the nuclear threat; the international rule of law; the future of human rights; and the challenges of climate change.
The Ottoman Road to War: Mustafa Aksakal on the Ottomans' Fateful Decision | 10/15/14 Why did the Ottoman Empire side with Germany in World War I? It was a rational decision, given the circumstances at the time, argues Aksakal. But it brought down the empire and violently reshaped the region's borders at horrifying human cost. Indeed, WWI informs national identities even today.
Carnegie Council Timeline: The First Hundred Years | 10/10/14 In honor of its Centennial, Carnegie Council presents an online history timeline, based on the book "Toward Peace with Justice" by Kate Hallgren. Like the book, this lavishly illustrated account offers a fresh perspective on the Council’s first 100 years, placing its story in the context of 20th century American and world history.
Ethics Fellows for the Future 2014 Essay Collection | 09/25/14 This booklet is a collection of the Ethics Fellows for the Future (EFF) essays and project outlines as well as the winning essay of Carnegie Council's 2014 Trans-Pacific Student Contest. Read their essays in magazine form or download the PDF.
Joel Rosenthal and Devin Stewart: Global Ethics Day, October 16 | 09/22/14 What is Global Ethics Day? "Our dream is that this becomes a global educational effort and that people come to learn from each other from all around the world," says Carnegie Council President Joel Rosenthal. The Council welcomes educational institutions, no matter where they are, to join this teach-in on October 16.
Student Contests and Network Opportunities | 09/04/14 To mark its 100th anniversary, Carnegie Council has launched a series of projects aimed at connecting students and professors around the world in a dialogue on global ethics. Get involved! Here's how.
Mary Dudziak on Civil Liberties During WWI and Beyond | 09/04/14 "Just as the nation is perpetually focused on security, we must also be perpetually focused on maintaining constitutional liberty."
World War to a Global Ethic | 09/03/14 "We come here—100 years to the day from the calamitous events of the summer of 1914—to remember, to take stock, and to recommit to the ideals passed on to us by Andrew Carnegie and others. The Carnegie ideal was simple but audacious: it is indeed realistic and possible to use reason and experience to improve the ways in which we live."
Was World War I Inevitable? | 09/03/14 We're still trying to understand what World War I meant. It is a very complex event, one that has echoes into the present, and we've all been thinking recently about parallels between that world and our own world. One of the very important things is not to start by assuming that it was inevitable.
Religion in War and Reconciliation | 09/03/14 "There is a long way to go before religious communities become more of a resource for reducing rather than a source for increasing antagonism. But to move in that direction clearly requires greater understanding at the local level."
Ethics and War | 09/03/14 "In this talk I want to consider how the ways in which we assess the morality of war are changing. My concern is not to judge the morality or otherwise of any particular war, but rather to say something about the enterprise of thinking morally about war, an exercise bound tightly to our deepest political and moral identity."
Legal and Moral International Norms Since 1914 | 09/03/14 "What lessons has humankind learned from the events of 1914 in Sarajevo? And are there further lessons that we should have learned, but didn't? Have our legal and moral norms changed (hopefully for the better) in the years since?"
War and Reconciliation in the Twentieth-Century Balkans | 09/03/14 What are the remedies for the endless cycles of violence in the Balkans? Croatian historian Ivo Banac examines various solutions that have been tried and found wanting, to some extent, and concludes with another possibility.
Sarajevo Panel Discussion | 09/03/14 In this wide-ranging conversation, participants from the Sarajevo Symposium discuss the past, present, and future of the former Yugoslav states with a focus on Bosnia and Herzegovina. How can private citizens and governments work together to build a more pluralistic society?
Sarajevo Symposium, Closing Remarks | 09/03/14 "We have all got to live with each other. There will be Serbs here in a thousand years, Croats here in a thousand years. We're stuck with each other. We don't have to love each other. This is not a council of brotherhood and unity. We did that. It didn't go so well. It's just a council of deep individual responsibility for ourselves as historical agents in time."
Carnegie's Vision for Peace: WNYC's Brian Lehrer Interviews Joel Rosenthal | 08/06/14 On the eve of the 100th anniversary of World War I, Carnegie Council President Joel Rosenthal discusses the legacy of Andrew Carnegie, who thought that international arbitration would eventually put an end to war. We haven't reached that point yet, but are we more peaceful than we were 100 years ago?
Toward Understanding Our World's Moral Landscape: Carnegie Council's Centennial Projects on a "Global Ethic" | 08/04/14 As part of its Centennial activities, Carnegie Council launched several projects, including the Global Ethical Dialogues and Thought Leaders Forum, to explore the concept of a "global ethic." Senior Fellow Devin Stewart writes on the highlights from these two projects, including what leading thinkers believe to be the greatest ethical challenges.
Global Ethics Day, October 16, 2014 | 08/01/14 Join the Carnegie Council teach-in! As part of its Centennial activities, Carnegie Council is inaugurating a worldwide Global Ethics Day on October 16 at City College of New York (CCNY). We encourage academic institutions around the world to use this day to hold their own events, lectures, or other educational activity to explore a "global ethic." In need of ideas? Have a look at our resources.
Superpower Ethics: An Introduction [Abstract] Aristotle's "virtue," Kant's "good intent," and the "good result" of the consequentialists are inadequate to determine right on the superpower playing field. In reference to this insufficiency, Nye sketches the arguments of the subsequent articles on the state of superpower ethics.
July 1914: Sean McMeekin on the Outbreak of World War I | 07/10/14 Would Europe have gone to war had Franz Ferdinand survived his visit to Bosnia? What were the blunders and miscalculations on all sides that fateful July 1914? Read historian Sean McMeekin's take.
We Have a Plan: From Sarajevo to Baghdad | 06/26/14 How should we mark the 100th anniversary of the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the event that led to WWI? Here in Sarajevo, remembering its tragic history at both the beginning and end of the 20th century, it's clear that passivity in the face of instability is not an answer. But it's equally clear that we should be humble about remedies.
The Participation Gap | 06/25/14 "Inequality doesn't result only from differences in income or wealth (the focus of French economist Thomas Piketty). It also has a political dimension, fueled by unequal access to power and the norm that all citizens deserve an equal voice."
Cataclysm: David Stevenson on World War I as Political Tragedy | 06/18/14 David Stevenson discusses the military and political decisions on both sides that led to World War I; the Eastern, Balkan, and Italian Fronts, which are often overlooked; the role of the colonies for the Allies; and much more.
The Crisis of 1914 and What It Means for Us Today | 06/12/14 On June 28, 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria was murdered in Sarajevo, an event that led to World War I. To commemorate this event and look to the future, the Council is holding a high-profile symposium in Sarajevo on June 27, 2014, which will discuss war and reconciliation.
Sarajevo is a Symbol: Commemorating the 100th Anniversary of the Assassination | 05/28/14 In this interview with the Turkish news organization Andalou Agency, Carnegie Council President Joel Rosenthal explains the reasons behind the Council's upcoming visit to Sarajevo and why its participation in the commemoration of the outbreak of World War I is important.
Essay on Singapore and the U.S. Wins 2014 Trans-Pacific Student Contest | 05/21/14 The winning entry from Salina Lee (USA) and Nelson Chew (Singapore) is written as a seemingly light-hearted conversation between two good friends on a sightseeing trip in New York Harbor. Yet the essay goes deeper, looking at serious topics that concern both nations: civil liberties, education methods, and race.
The Little Red Dot and the Land of the Free: Singapore and the United States | 05/21/14 What defines your country? How do you perceive someone from a totally different background? Who would have guessed that an exchange between a Singaporean and an American would offer insights on the subtle connections that make two vastly different countries so very comparable.
The Long Shadow: David Reynolds on World War I | 05/19/14 David Reynolds discusses the different ways the carnage of World War I is memorialized in Europe and its different long-term effects on Western and Eastern Europe; England, Scotland, and Ireland; and lastly, the United States.
The Lost Promise of Patriotism: Jonathan Hansen on World War I (Part II) | 03/24/14 "What does it mean to be patriotic in a nation founded on a set of putative universal principles and composed primarily of immigrants and their descendants? This is a timeless question that first came to a head in World War I and received renewed attention (though not much debate) in the wake of 9/11."
The Lost Promise of Patriotism: Jonathan Hansen on World War I (Part I) | 03/17/14 Jonathan Hansen refers to a group of American scholars, public intellectuals, and social reformers—such as W. E. B. Du Bois, Eugene V. Debs, Jane Addams, and Randolph Bourne—as "cosmopolitan patriots." What were their reactions to World War I and how were they different from their peers? To find out, read this fascinating interview.
To End All Wars: Adam Hochschild on World War I | 02/27/14 The consequences of World War I are still with us, says Adam Hochschild. Are we in danger of making the same mistakes again? Why were Europeans so eager to go to war? What happened to those who publicly opposed it? Read the answers to these questions and more in this fascinating interview.
Carnegie Council Debuts Thought Leaders Forum: Leading Minds on the Ethical Challenges of the 21st Century | 02/26/14 We invited world-changing visionaries and role models from diverse professions, backgrounds, and regions to identify the greatest ethical questions facing the planet and offer creative advice on how to respond to them. The result is the Thought Leaders Forum, a multimedia micro-site featuring the insights from more than 50 leading minds.
Winners of the 2013 International Student/Teacher "Moral Leadership" Essay Contest | 01/31/14 The essay topic was "What does moral leadership mean to you?" In total we received 168 entries from 31 countries. Read the winning essays here!
The Moral Operating System of a Global City: Los Angeles | 01/31/14 For global cities to solve the central problem of collaboration among strangers, they need a moral operating system: shared codes and behaviors that enable people from different backgrounds to live together on a daily basis.
A New Sense of Direction (1968) | 01/20/14 Dr. King gave this speech just a few months before his assassination and it is his last thorough evaluation of the movement. Still sadly relevant, he discusses U.S. racism, injustice, and militarism, and despite all, reaffirms his commitment to non-violence.
What Should Happen this Century? | 01/01/14 Thought Leaders Dambisa Moyo, Alan Blinder, Kishore Mahbubani, Ethan Zuckerman, Fazle Hasan Abed, Kwame Anthony Appiah, Louise Arbour, Peter Morales, and Jonathan Sacks describe what they would like to see happen in the next 100 years. DISCUSS >>
Is World Peace Possible? | 01/01/14 Thought Leaders Michael Walzer, Bineta Diop, Rebecca MacKinnon, Thomas Pogge, Gillian Tett, Ethan Zuckerman, Carne Ross, Jay Winter, Peter Morales, Kishore Mahbubani, and Nancy Birdsall answer whether world peace is possible. DISCUSS >>
What Does Moral Leadership Mean? | 01/01/14 Thought Leaders Gillian Tett, Robert Kaplan, Bineta Diop, Carne Ross, Rachel Kleinfeld, Jay Winter, Jessica Jackley, Lawrence Freedman, and Somaly Mam describe what moral leadership means to them. DISCUSS >>
Who Is Ultimately Accountable? | 01/01/14 Thought Leaders Ethan Zuckerman, Carne Ross, Chan Heng Chee, Thomas Pogge, Jonathan Sacks, Rachel Kleinfeld, Enrique Penalosa, Brent Scowcroft, and Ian Bremmer describe who is ultimately accountable for the problems of the world. DISCUSS >>
What Is Morally Distinct About Our Era? | 01/01/14 Thought Leaders Michael Walzer, Jonathan Haidt, Kwame Anthony Appiah, Mary Robinson, Jonathan Sacks, Ian Bremmer, Joseph Nye, Kishore Mahbubani, Rebecca MacKinnon, Ethan Zuckerman, Louise Arbour, Andrew Nathan, Robert Kaplan, Brent Scowcroft, and Enrique Penalosa describe what's morally distinct today. DISCUSS >>
How Do You Define Global Ethics? | 01/01/14 Thought Leaders Jonathan Haidt, Rachel Kleinfeld, Iam Bremmer, Carne Ross, Andrew Nathan, Anne-Marie Slaughter, Michael Walzer, Gillian Tett, and Brent Scowcroft describe their visions of a global ethic. DISCUSS >>
What Are Our Greatest Ethical Challenges? | 01/01/14 Thought Leaders Ian Bremmer, Carne Ross, Dambisa Moyo, Michael Walzer, Rachel Kleinfeld, Ethan Zuckerman, Kishore Mahbubani, Dan Ariely, Thomas Pogge, and Michael Doyle describe humanity's greatest ethical challenges. DISCUSS >>
Symposium at the Scottish Parliament: From War to a Global Ethic | 11/21/13 Is it possible to create a global code of ethics? In this Carnegie Council Centennial Symposium at the Scottish Parliament, the panelists discuss Andrew Carnegie's legacy; what has changed since his time; and Carnegie Council's contribution to the vital task of moving toward a shared international understanding with which to face today's problems.
Citizenship Within and Across Nations | 11/12/13 Philosopher Kwame Anthony Appiah explores the role of civic honor, and its negative counterpart, shame, in shaping the political behavior of individuals and of nations, and in particular, in shaping the moral dimensions of political behavior.
Winners of the 2013 International Student Photo Contest, Living with Differences | 11/04/13 Carnegie Council for Ethics in International Affairs is delighted to announce the winners of its first international student photo contest. First prize went to a colorful image of intercultural connection: a British teacher, learning from her Indian students, as captured by a Japanese photographer.
WINNING PHOTOS: 2013 International Student Photo Contest | 11/04/13 Congratulations to the winners of the 2013 Carnegie Council International Student Photo Contest, on the theme of Living with Differences.
Michael Ignatieff Presents Inaugural Lecture for Washington and Lee University's Mudd Center for Ethics | 10/31/13 What role should democratic deliberation play in decisions about whether or not to engage in human-rights interventions? In the inaugural lecture of Washington and Lee University's Roger Mudd Center for Ethics, Carnegie Council Centennial Michael Ignatieff posed that question with respect to the reluctance of the U.S. to use force in Syria's civil war.
A Letter to Andrew Carnegie on the Eve of the Council's Centennial | 10/28/13 From our vantage point 100 years on, Andrew Carnegie got some things right and others wrong; but the core issue remains the same. "Today's Carnegie Council focuses on the one central question that preoccupied you and your colleagues at our founding: How can we learn to live together peacefully while acknowledging our deepest differences?"
Ethical Challenges in Trans-Pacific Relations: Selected Essays, 2013 Contest | 09/27/13 Carnegie Council presents the 12 best essays from our 2013 Trans-Pacific Contest, a pioneering exercise in student collaboration. These outstanding pieces touch on issues ranging from the ethical implications of sweatshops, to cybersecurity, to climate change. Read their essays in magazine form or download the PDF.
Michael Ignatieff Writes of Hard Lessons Learned in Politics | 09/21/13 Susan Delacourt, senior writer for the "Toronto Star," discusses Centennial chair and former Canadian opposition leader Michael Ignatieff's book "Fire and Ashes: Success and Failure in Politics." The book focuses "on what he, as a newcomer to the business, learned about politics in the trenches and on an unforgiving public stage."
The Unsung Hero Who Coined the Term "Genocide" | 09/21/13 In this "The New Republic" piece, Centennial Chair Michael Ignatieff recounts the life of Raphael Lemkin, who coined the term "genocide." A Jewish, Polish law scholar who immigrated to the United States in 1941, Lemkin made it his life's project to "save future generations from the genocidal furies that had claimed his own family."
Why Michael Ignatieff is Glad He Entered Politics | 09/21/13 "People sometimes ask me whether, looking back now, I think my political career was a mistake," writes Michael Ignatieff, Carnegie Council Centennial chair and former leader of the Liberal Party of Canada in "The Globe and Mail." "Yes, we lost it all in the end, and losing was brutal. But as I said on election night, failure is a great teacher."
Deciding When to Use Force for Humane Reasons | 09/19/13 Following Centennial Chair Michael Ignatieff's op-ed in the "New York Times" on what he terms "the duty to protect" civilians in Syria, the "Times" published two letters responding to his article. Both authors take issue with Ignatieff's assertion that military action can legitimately be carried out without approval from the United Nations.
The Duty to Protect, Still Urgent | 09/14/13 "In the future, the Security Council may be deadlocked about intervening, and presidents and prime ministers will have to turn instead to their people for permission to save civilians," writes Centennial Chair Michael Ignatieff in "The New York Times." Rebuilding public support for such interventions remains a critical challenge for democratic leaders.
How to Save the Syrians | 09/13/13 "Keeping open the threat of a limited, targeted strike on Assad, while negotiations over the chemical weapons program continue, is essential both for reaching a chemical weapons agreement and for sustaining the momentum necessary for an eventual cease-fire," argues Centennial Chair Michael Ignatieff in this piece for the "New York Review of Books Blog."
Ethical Challenges in Trans-Pacific Relations: Twelve Best Contest Essays | 09/04/13 Read the 12 best essays from our 2013 Trans-Pacific contest, a pioneering exercise in student collaboration.
Trans-Pacific Student Contest, DEADLINE APRIL 30 | 08/19/13 Essay or video topic: What are current or historical developments in your home country that illustrate shared or different values between your and your contest partner's country? Each entry must be a collaboration between a student who is a citizen of the United States and a student from one of the listed East Asian countries. DEADLINE: April 30, 2014.
Globalization Is the Unsung Champion of the Protests Happening Around the World | 07/11/13 Through the late 80s and 90s, protests everywhere from Berlin to Seattle revealed a common target of public unrest: globalization. Now, however, globalization has become an unsung champion of an empowered, rising global middle class that is more connected and has higher expectations politically. The June protests in Brazil are a good example.
2013 International Student/Teacher Essay Contest: What Does Moral Leadership Mean to You? | 07/11/13 What does moral leadership mean to you? Please include examples of moral leadership worldwide, and/or from your local community and personal experience. Open to all teachers, and all students high school through graduate school. DEADLINE: December 31, 2013.
The Ethics of Globalization and the Globalization of Ethics | 06/27/13 In this rousing and eloquent speech in Rio, given during the biggest protests there in 25 years, Michael Ignatieff salutes the protesters' "patriotic anger" and discusses how to combat corruption, a 2,000-year-old problem common to societies worldwide.
Global Ethical Dialogues: Lessons from Brazil, Uruguay, and Argentina | 06/25/13 Most societies agree on certain global norms. For example, in most countries, corruption is considered unethical. But what happens when global norms are applied locally? How does a society define corruption and what is it doing about it? In June, 2013, our research team got to see firsthand how these forces play out in Argentina, Uruguay, and Brazil.
Roundtable: Reflections on International Peace | 06/20/13 "Ethics & International Affairs" and Carnegie Council are proud to present a special Centennial roundtable, “Reflections on International Peace,” with contributions from David C. Hendrickson, Akira Iriye, Laura Sjoberg, Nigel Young, and Andrew Hurrell.
Michael Ignatieff: "La tecnología le da a los gobiernos un "poder sin precedentes" y la prensa tiene que ser "mucho más fuerte" para controlarlo" | 06/20/13 The Uruguayan weekly newspaper "Búsqueda," one of the two most influential political weekly newspapers in the country, featured a full-page interview with Centennial chair Michael Ignatieff. (In Spanish)
Global Ethical Dialogues: Concept Paper | 06/12/13 How can Carnegie Council, an organization with a global mandate but based in New York, contribute to generating egalitarian dialogue within and between unequal societies? We hope to do so by organizing an inter-connected series of global dialogues on the ethical roots of problems we face in common and what we need to do together to solve them.
Human Rights Expert and Former Politician Michael Ignatieff Leads Ethical Dialogue in South America | 06/05/13 Given that global dialogue on ethical issues is already going on in thousands of places, how can Carnegie Council make a distinctive contribution? Led by Centennial Chair Dr. Michael Ignatieff, the Council is meeting this challenge by setting up Global Ethical Dialogues across the world, starting with a June 2013 visit to Argentina, Uruguay, and Brazil.
International Student Photo Contest: Living with Differences - Deadline Oct 31 | 06/03/13 In a world with tremendous diversity of beliefs and cultures, how do we live together amicably? Part of the answer lies in pluralism: the appreciation of diversity and differences, with recognition of and respect for shared values. Students everywhere, we challenge you to submit a photo that illustrates this concept! The minimum age is 13. DEADLINE: October 31, 2013.
Learning from Our “Youngers” | 05/18/13 Bruce Jentleson surveys some of the responses in a recent Carnegie Council worldwide student/teacher essay contest on global ethical challenges and dilemmas and asks: What can veteran foreign policy debaters learn from the world's youth about focusing more on the fundamental issues of our age?
Is World Peace Possible? Answers to This and other Big Questions from 50 Thought Leaders around the World | 05/02/13 As part of its 2014 Centennial project, Carnegie Council is asking Thought Leaders around the world to answer big moral questions. We just reached the symbolic milestone of 50 interviews, and there will be many more to come.
Winners of the 2012 International Student/Teacher Essay Contest, "Ethics for a Connected World" | 02/22/13 Carnegie Council announces the results of its annual International Student/Teacher Essay Contest. Winners are from Finland, India, Japan, Nigeria, the Philippines, Sweden, and the USA, with honorable mentions for essays from Indonesia, Japan, South Korea, and the USA.
Ethical Leaders Have A Vision for Helping Others | 02/01/13 In February 2013, Global Thinkers Forum's website featured an interview with Devin Stewart, Carnegie Council senior program director and senior fellow.
Human Rights Watch: Promoting Ethical Behavior When It's Contested | 11/29/12 It's the job of Human Rights Watch to shine a spotlight on human rights abuses worldwide, including in the U.S., says its executive director Ken Roth. We speak not for the public conscience, but to it, "and if we have hit that conscience accurately, it’s reflected in shame, and governments then have to respond to that."
Summary of Second Annual Global Ethics Fellows Conference in New York | 11/15/12 This international conference included three panels: Cultural and Universal Norms; Political Will and Responsibilities; and Managing Systemic Risk and Systemic Crisis.
Michael Ignatieff to Chair Carnegie Council's 100th Anniversary Project "Ethics for a Connected World" | 10/03/12 Carnegie Council is pleased to announce that Michael Ignatieff will chair the Council's Centennial project. This long-term education program consists of worldwide activities for teachers, students, and the general public around the evolving concept of a "global ethic."
Carnegie Council's Trans-Pacific Student Contest, "Ethics for a Connected World" | 09/06/12 Carnegie Council announces its first Trans-Pacific Student Contest, a unique experiment in U.S.-Asia collaboration. Essay or video topic: What is the greatest ethical challenge facing U.S.-Asia relations?
International Student/Teacher Essay Contest, Deadline 12/31/12 | 09/06/12 What is the world's greatest challenge, and how does it affect both your local community and the world? What are the ethical issues involved and how can we work together to overcome this problem?
Global Rules, Local Rulers | 06/26/12 Carnegie UK Trust staff open up a fascinating discussion with the Carnegie Council audience on their research into the relationship between advocacy groups, citizens, and international organizations that regulate trade, markets, and consumer policy.
Re-Imagining a Global Ethic | 11/21/11 "A global ethic makes it possible for us to agree to disagree about ultimate questions, provided we have the philosophical clarity that comes from that process of adversarial justification," says Ignatieff in this thoughtful and challenging talk.
Shake Hands with the Devil: The Failure of Humanity in Rwanda | 01/29/03 Dallaire recalls the agony of not being able to take action to halt the Rwandan genocide because he lacked the requisite authority as well as manpower and equipment. In essence, he lacked the support of the international community.